The Crusaders ( film) - Wikipedia
Edited by, Alessandro Lucidi. Release date. Country, Italy · Germany. Language, Italian. The Crusaders (original title: Crociati) is a Italian television mini-series written by Andrea. This paper explores some of the key dimensions of emerging Crusaders heritage Shoval, ; Boas, ) nobody to date has researched the very different. The `fighting march' was first defined and explored by the great Crusades historian R.C. Smail. The history of the tactic is a long one, dating back to classica .
His excellent volume for the Hakluyt Society was an invaluable modern study of the important pilgrims and their accounts with translations, for which we had previously to rely on the antiquated translations of the Palestine Pilgrims Text Society.
Marie Luise Bulst Thiele Heidelberg: Typographi Brepols Editores Pontificii, Barber, The New Knighthood. A History of the Order of the Temple Cambridge: The monastic Military Orders were the most innovative institution in the Latin States.
This is a very fine discussion of the origins and history of the Temple which firmly avoids the fantasies which have become attached to them. This is the key piece of writing on the idea of the crusade. The basic ideas suggested in this article have been used and extended by many other writers, but this deserves the description of seminal. It is impossible to understand the nature of the 13th century Kingdom of Jerusalem without reading this work.
The publication of this book marked a sea-change in the way we look at the Latin States of the East. Ellenblum shows them to be less alien than was so often thought, and more deeply rooted in the local society and economy. Erdmann, The Origin of the Idea of Crusade tr. Goffart of a German original New Jersey: Since the body of evidence we have about the development of Christian thinking on warfare has increased and it has been analyzed more and more thoroughly.
But without a reading of this book there can be no understanding of the modern debate about the crusades. Hamilton, The Latin Church in the Crusader states: This remains the fullest study of the Latin Church in the East and as such is essential reading. An exceptional book which can serve as a collection of sources on the Islamic reaction to the western incursion. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, This is the very model of how to write an account of a single crusade.
The Fifth Crusade was a remarkably long and complex event, but Powell works through the sources in a highly systematic way to provide a clear and well-structured account. Bloomsbury, 3rd edition, This is very simply the best outline introduction to the crusades because of its structure and exceptionally clear writing.
Riley-Smith has contributed an enormous store of ideas aboiut crusading to which this short work serves as an introduction.
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Smail, Crusading Warfare Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,2nd edition Some of the assumptions underlying this book are dated, notably the identification of crusading with colonialism. However, it remains absolutely the foundation-work on the subject and still vitally useful. A Military History of the First Crusade This is probably one of the finest medieval military histories ever written, perhaps the finest, and a tour-de-force in crusades studies.
Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades: An Islamic History of the Crusades Palgrave Advances The Crusades Ten years later, it is still the perfect one-volume way of situating yourself in the field.
Historians Rank the “Most Important” Books on the Crusades
Norman Housley, Fighting for the Cross: Crusading to the Holy Land It covers crusading actually looked and felt like, from the sermon to the return home. Norman Housley, The Later Crusades: Norman Housley, Contesting the Crusades This is basically the bible for understanding crusade historiography. Suzanne Yeager, Jerusalem in Medieval Narrative This is one of those books that has not only been very useful to me in my own research, but continues to be useful as time goes by because of its endless insights into the complex phenomenon crusade literature, in this case late medieval English writings.
Riley-Smith, however, was interested in the phenomenon of religious justification of violence as a sociological phenomenon, which lends this work a particularly enduring relevance, despite the advances of the past 26 years.
European Colonialism in the Middle Ages The chapter on the geography of crusader Jerusalem alone is worth the price. Choosing only ten books is very hard. These are both expensive and difficult to obtain, but they focus on two issues that I believe are absolutely key to understanding both crusading and the shift from the Middle Ages to the Early Modern Era: Here are my top He opened the door to the Byzantine Empire for me, as for many others.
I still get this off the shelf from time time to time; his passion is palpable. Jonathan Riley Smith, The First Crusade and Idea of Crusading- The doyen of Crusade historians, Riley-Smith was an astonishing scholar, a brilliant writer and perhaps most important of all, a teacher of an entire generation of outstanding Crusade historians. This is my favourite of his books and represents history writing at its most compelling: There are many outstanding books on the Crusades as a whole.
But for me, this one is the best. It is a stupendous feat of scholarship by a colleague and friend at Oxford who is as generous and modest as is he brilliant. Ralph-Johannes Lilie, Byzanz und die Kreuzfahrerstaaten: Lilie is meticulous and this book is filled with insights from the outset. He has done Crusade scholars an immense service by expanding the field of vision beyond Christian knights, their aims, objectives and struggles, to look from the perspective of the Islamic world.
This book can help change that. MacEvitt is one of the new generation of scholars asking interesting and I daresay better questions about the full impact of the Crusades.
In doing so, he is helping move discussions away from the monasteries of France, and closer to the action. Malcolm Barber, The Crusader States— Many historians look at the Crusades from the point of view of the expeditions themselves and their achievements and shortcomings. Barber looks at the Crusader states themselves, at relations with the Muslim world and those with continental Europe.
It is a wonderful book, and one that makes you laugh out loud: Jay Rubenstein, Armies of Heaven. The First Crusade and the Quest for Apocalypse-Jay is a brilliant historian and also a friend of mine.
I love the work he does on the Latin sources, which seem to melt in his hands. This book is terrific. It looks at how important the fear and expectation of apocalypse was in late 11th century Europe. His work is always sharp, smart and engaging. The account of the Fourth Crusade and the build up to is wonderfully written and compelling.
Phillips is able to gather loose strands and tie them into a coherent, single narrative. That is not easy, but he does it beautifully. First, because I am very aware my other books are written by men; second, because her account of the First Crusade written at the time of the Second is both immensely important and also chronically misunderstood. And third, because I really owe Anna my academic career: It taught me how to ask the right questions and how to find good answers. Anna was a far better scholar than me and her text is a delight from start to finish.
Understanding how to read a complex 12th century medieval Greek narrative history the first written by a woman in a European language taught me how to do the same for sources range from Han dynasty China to going through national archives in the 20th century. It became acceptable for the Pope to utilize knights in the name of Christendomnot only against political enemies of the Papacy, but also against Al-Andalusor, theoretically, against the Seljuq dynasty in the east.
Historians have argued that the desire to impose Roman church authority in the east may have been one of the goals of the crusade,  although Urban II, who launched the First Crusade, never refers to such a goal in his letters on crusading. The Seljuq Turks had taken over almost all of Anatolia after the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Manzikert in ; however, their conquests were piecemeal and led by semi-independent warlords, rather than by the sultan.
Siege of Jerusalem (1187)
A dramatic collapse of the empire's position on the eve of the Council of Clermont brought Byzantium to the brink of disaster. This call was largely ignored and even opposed. Byzantine—Seljuq wars The Byzantine empire had lost control over most of Anatolia in the decade following the disastrous Battle of Manzikert. Until the Crusaders' arrival, the Byzantines had continually fought the Seljuqs and other Turkish dynasties for control of Anatolia and Syria.
The Seljuqs, who were orthodox Sunni Muslims, had formerly ruled the Great Seljuq Empirebut by the time of the First Crusade it had divided into several smaller states after the death of Malik-Shah I in Tutush's sons Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively, further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerboghathe atabeg of Mosul.
Warfare between the Fatimids and Seljuqs caused great disruption for the local Christians and for western pilgrims. The Fatimids, under the nominal rule of caliph al-Musta'li but actually controlled by vizier al-Afdal Shahanshahhad lost Jerusalem to the Seljuqs in although some older accounts say ;  they recaptured it in from the Artuqidsa smaller Turkish tribe associated with the Seljuqs, just before the arrival of the crusaders.
Urban responded favourably, perhaps hoping to heal the Great Schism of forty years earlier, and to reunite the Church under papal primacy by helping the Eastern churches in their time of need. There were signs of considerable co-operation between Rome and Constantinople in the years immediately before the crusade. His travels there culminated in the ten day Council of Clermontwhere on Tuesday 27 November he gave an impassioned sermon to a large audience of French nobles and clergy.
There are five versions of the speech recorded by people who may have been at the council Baldric of DolGuibert of NogentRobert the Monkand Fulcher of Chartres or who went on crusade Fulcher and the anonymous author of the Gesta Francorumas well as other versions found in later historians such as William of Malmesbury and William of Tyre. All of these versions were written after Jerusalem had been captured.
Thus it is difficult to know what was actually said and what was recreated in the aftermath of the successful crusade.
First Crusade - Wikipedia
The only contemporary records are a few letters written by Urban in However, it has been argued that Urban's subsequent preaching reveals that he expected the expedition to reach Jerusalem all along. Peter was the most successful of the preachers of Urban's message, and developed an almost hysterical enthusiasm among his followers, although he was probably not an "official" preacher sanctioned by Urban at Clermont.
The army led by Walter fought with the Hungarians over food at Belgradebut otherwise arrived in Constantinople unharmed. Meanwhile, the army led by Peter, which marched separately from Walter's army, also fought with the Hungarians, and may have captured Belgrade. At Nish the Byzantine governor tried to supply them, but Peter had little control over his followers and Byzantine troops were needed to quell their attacks. Peter arrived at Constantinople in August, where his army joined with the one led by Walter, which had already arrived, as well as separate bands of crusaders from France, Germany, and Italy.
Another army of Bohemians and Saxons did not make it past Hungary before splitting up. The greater experience of the Turks was overwhelming; and most of this group of the crusaders were massacred because of it. Some Italian and German crusaders were defeated and killed at Xerigordon at the end of August.
The Turkish archers destroyed the crusader army, and Walter was among the dead. Peter, who was absent in Constantinople at the time, later joined the main crusader army, along with the few survivors of Civetot.
Other unofficial crusaders from Swabia, led by Hartmann of Dillingen, along with French, English, Lotharingian and Flemish volunteers, led by Drogo of Nesle and William the Carpenteras well as many locals, joined Emicho in the destruction of the Jewish community of Mainz at the end of May. His followers dispersed; some eventually joined the main armies, although Emicho himself went home. Physical violence against Jews was never part of the church hierarchy's official policy for crusading, and the Christian bishops, especially the Archbishop of Cologne, did their best to protect the Jews.
A decade before, the Bishop of Speyer had taken the step of providing the Jews of that city with a walled ghetto to protect them from Christian violence and given their chief Rabbis the control of judicial matters in the quarter.
Nevertheless, some also took money in return for their protection. The attacks may have originated in the belief that Jews and Muslims were equally enemies of Christ, and enemies were to be fought or converted to Christianity. Godfrey of Bouillon was rumoured to have extorted money from the Jews of Cologne and Mainz, and many of the Crusaders wondered why they should travel thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already non-believers closer to home. Princes' Crusade[ edit ] Routes of the leaders of the First Crusade The four main crusader armies left Europe around the appointed time in August They took different paths to Constantinople and gathered outside its city walls between November and April ; Hugh of Vermandois arrived first, followed by Godfrey, Raymond, and Bohemond.
This time, Emperor Alexios was more prepared for the crusaders; there were fewer incidents of violence along the way. Adhemar himself was present at the Council and was the first to "take the cross". During the rest of and intoUrban spread the message throughout France, and urged his bishops and legates to preach in their own dioceses elsewhere in France, Germany, and Italy as well.
However, it is clear that the response to the speech was much greater than even the Pope, let alone Alexios, expected. On his tour of France, Urban tried to forbid certain people including women, monks, and the sick from joining the crusade, but found this nearly impossible. In the end, most who took up the call were not knights, but peasants who were not wealthy and had little in the way of fighting skills, in an outpouring of a new emotional and personal piety that was not easily harnessed by the ecclesiastical and lay aristocracy.
As the secular medieval world was so deeply ingrained with the spiritual world of the church, it is quite likely that personal piety was a major factor for many crusaders. The crusaders represented northern and southern France, Flanders, Germany, and southern Italy, and so were divided into four separate armies that were not always cooperative, though they were held together by their common ultimate goal.