History and Geography of Europe
National Geographic Maps hub including map products and stories about maps and mapmaking. British Isles Physical Map (K): From The Historical Atlas by William R. Published by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and edited by James Geikie. Free political, physical and outline maps of Europe and individual country and geographical blending with the bordering European countries.
Classical Greek culture had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean region and Northern Europe. In short, the Greek culture provided the foundation of modern Western culture.
Of the great civilizations to develop in Europe, the previously mentioned Roman Empire certainly had the most lasting influence. During its often tumultuous year period of innovation, it changed the continent and had a profound and lasting influence on the development of modern architecture, language, law and religion.
In Western Europe, a wide series of tribes and tribal alliances moved into positions of power in the remnants of the former Roman Empire; small kingdoms were established, and the geography of Western Europe was about to change.
The Kingdom of the Franks was a southeastern European territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks. They would evolve into the Kingdom of France, and parts of it would morph into the Holy Roman Empire, a forerunner to the Germany we know today. Anglo-Saxons soon crossed what is now the English Channel to southern Britain and established a series of kingdoms in what would eventually develop into the Kingdom of England by AD ; years later the Kingdoms of Poland and Hungary would also take shape.
With little interest in land acquisition, the Scandinavian Norse Vikings aggressively explored Europe for trade and riches. The Normans a Viking people gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France.
Initially emerging in the first half of the 10th century, they had a significant impact on many parts of Europe, from the Norman conquest of England to southern Italy and Sicily. By the end of the 15th century, great powers emerged in Europe, with England, France, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain playing predominant roles in global affairs from the 15th century onward, especially after the beginning of colonialism.
The European colonial period, the s to the mids, was the era when the European powers mentioned above established colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European nations, at various times, controlled the Americas north and southmost of Africa, Oceania and large portions of Asia.
As people craved freedom across the globe, the European colonial era began to fall apart. Specifically the British Empire, the first genuinely global empire, began to lose its powers in Africa, India and much of the Middle East, and they soon crumbled away.The History of Europe: Every Year
A couple of examples might be a dot map showing corn production in Indiana or a shaded area map of Ohio counties, divided into numerical choropleth classes. As the volume of geographic data has exploded over the last century, thematic cartography has become increasingly useful and necessary to interpret spatial, cultural and social data.
A third type of map is known as an "orienteering," or special purpose map. This type of map falls somewhere between thematic and general maps.
Atlas geographic al europei online dating
They combine general map elements with thematic attributes in order to design a map with a specific audience in mind. Oftentimes, the type of audience an orienteering map is made for is in a particular industry or occupation.
An example of this kind of map would be a municipal utility map. Terrain or relief can be shown in a variety of ways see Cartographic relief depiction. In the present era, one of the most widespread and advanced methods used to form topographic maps is to use computer software to generate digital elevation models which show shaded relief.
Before such software existed, cartographers had to draw shaded relief by hand. One cartographer who is respected as a master of hand-drawn shaded relief is the Swiss professor Eduard Imhof whose efforts in hill shading were so influential that his method became used around the world despite it being so labor-intensive.
It often disregards scale and detail in the interest of clarity of communicating specific route or relational information. Beck's London Underground map is an iconic example. Although the most widely used map of "The Tube," it preserves little of reality: The only topography on it is the River Thamesletting the reader know whether a station is north or south of the river. That and the topology of station order and interchanges between train lines are all that is left of the geographic space.
Map purpose and selection of information[ edit ] Arthur H. Robinsonan American cartographer influential in thematic cartography, stated that a map not properly designed "will be a cartographic failure.
From the very beginning of mapmaking, maps "have been made for some particular purpose or set of purposes". The term percipient refers to the person receiving information and was coined by Robinson.
This will enhance the user's experience and keep their attention. If the user is unable to identify what is being demonstrated in a reasonable fashion, the map may be regarded as useless. Making a meaningful map is the ultimate goal. Alan MacEachren explains that a well designed map "is convincing because it implies authenticity"pp. An interesting map will no doubt engage a reader. Information richness or a map that is multivariate shows relationships within the map.
Showing several variables allows comparison, which adds to the meaningfulness of the map. This also generates hypothesis and stimulates ideas and perhaps further research. In order to convey the message of the map, the creator must design it in a manner which will aid the reader in the overall understanding of its purpose. The title of a map may provide the "needed link" necessary for communicating that message, but the overall design of the map fosters the manner in which the reader interprets it Monmonier,pp.
In the 21st century it is possible to find a map of virtually anything from the inner workings of the human body to the virtual worlds of cyberspace. Therefore, there are now a huge variety of different styles and types of map — for example, one area which has evolved a specific and recognisable variation are those used by public transport organisations to guide passengersnamely urban rail and metro mapsmany of which are loosely based on 45 degree angles as originally perfected by Harry Beck and George Dow.
Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online
Toponymy and Cartographic labeling Most maps use text to label places and for such things as the map title, legend and other information. Although maps are often made in one specific language, place names often differ between languages. So a map made in English may use the name Germany for that country, while a German map would use Deutschland and a French map Allemagne.
- Navigation menu
- Europe Wikipedia.
- Europe History
A non-native term for a place is referred to as an exonym. In some cases the correct name is not clear. For example, the nation of Burma officially changed its name to Myanmarbut many nations do not recognize the ruling junta and continue to use Burma. Sometimes an official name change is resisted in other languages and the older name may remain in common use.
Difficulties arise when transliteration or transcription between writing systems is required. Even in the former case, the exclusive use of an exonym may be unhelpful for the map user. It will not be much use for an English user of a map of Italy to show Livorno only as "Leghorn" when road signs and railway timetables show it as "Livorno".
In transliteration, the characters in one script are represented by characters in another. Systems exist for transliteration of Arabicbut the results may vary.
Transliteration systems are based on relating written symbols to one another, while transcription is the attempt to spell in one language the phonetic sounds of another. Chinese writing is now usually converted to the Latin alphabet through the Pinyin phonetic transcription systems.
Other systems were used in the past, such as Wade-Gilesresulting in the city being spelled Beijing on newer English maps and Peking on older ones. Further difficulties arise when countries, especially former colonies, do not have a strong national geographic naming standard.
In such cases, cartographers may have to choose between various phonetic spellings of local names versus older imposed, sometimes resented, colonial names. Some countries have multiple official languages, resulting in multiple official placenames. For example, the capital of Belgium is both Brussel and Bruxelles.
History and Geography of Europe and the World
In Canada, English and French are official languages and places have names in both languages. British Columbia is also officially named la Colombie-Britannique.
In order to improve legibility or to aid the illiterate, some maps have been produced using pictograms to represent places. The iconic example of this practice is Lance Wyman 's early plans for the Mexico City Metroon which stations were shown simply as stylized logos. Wyman also prototyped such a map for the Washington Metrothough ultimately the idea was rejected. Other cities experimenting with such maps are FukuokaGuadalajara and Monterrey.
Symbology may be implicit, using universal elements of design, or may be more specific to cartography or even to the map. A map may have any of many kinds of symbolization. A legend, or keyexplains the map's pictorial language. A title indicates the region and perhaps the theme that the map portrays.
Cartography - Wikipedia
A neatline frames the entire map image. A compass rose or north arrow provides orientation. An overview map gives global context for the primary map.
A bar scale translates between map measurements and real distances. A map projection provides a way to represent the curved surface on the plane of the map. The map may declare its sources, accuracy, publication date and authorship, and so forth.
The map image itself portrays the region. Map coloring is another form of symbology, one whose importance can reach beyond aesthetic.
In complex thematic maps, for example, the color scheme's structure can critically affect the reader's ability to understand the map's information. Modern computer displays and print technologies can reproduce much of the gamut that humans can perceive, allowing for intricate exploitation of human visual discrimination in order to convey detailed information. Quantitative symbols give a visual indication of the magnitude of the phenomenon that the symbol represents.