Araling Pinoy: EMILIO AGUINALDO
Aguinaldo was of Chinese and Tagalog parentage. He attended San Juan de Letrán College in Manila but left school early to help his mother run the family farm. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was born into the local elite of Cavite on the Island of Luzon in the Philippines. His father had been mayor of Kawit (Cavite viejo) at the . Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo led his country to achieve independence after fighting off both the Spanish and the Americans. Revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo was born on March 22, , in Kawit, Cavite, Philippines. He also led the Philippine-American War against U.S.
On January 23,the Malolos Constitution—by virtue of which the Philippines was declared a republic and which had been approved by the assembly and by Aguinaldo—was proclaimed. Aguinaldo, who had been president of the provisional government, was elected president. On the night of February 4 the inevitable conflict between the Americans and Filipinos surrounding Manila was precipitated.
By the morning of February 5 the Filipinos, who had fought bravely, had been defeated at all points.
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While the fighting was in progress, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation of war against the United States, which immediately sent reinforcements to the Philippines. The Filipino government fled northward. In November the Filipinos resorted to guerrilla warfare.
Library of Congress, Washington, D. After three years of costly fighting the insurrection was finally brought to an end when, in a daring operation on March 23,led by Gen. Frederick Funston, Aguinaldo was captured in his secret headquarters at Palanan in northern Luzon. It soon became apparent that in order to hold on to captured territory, the rebels had to conform unified intra-provincial administrative units. The perimeter was then secured with forts and trenches.Ang Pangulo Ko: Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
The Katipunan army in Cavite was big, but it has been estimated that the army north of the Pasig River was much bigger. In other parts of the archipelago, the rebels were organized into squads and commands smaller than those in Central Luzon. The original Katipunan sub-organizations of Sangunian Bayan on the supra-municipal level, and the Panguluhang Bayan local council on the district or barrio level constituted the civilian component of the Katagalugan government. As the government was a revolutionary one, many civilian leaders were concurrently military officials.
At the same time, generals and key officers in the revolutionary army exercised power over government structures. Bonifacio, as president was effectively the commander-in-chief. Aguinaldo was one of his captains general. The Spanish military writer Federico de Monteverde gives details of the military organization instituted by Bonifacio.
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Monteverde fully illustrates the different revolutionary insignas corresponding to each rank, such as colonel, brigadier general, major general, lieutenant general and captain general.
Various military insignas are also discussed by Taylor, and described by Generals Alvarez and Artemio Ricarte in their memoirs. As the revolution progressed, Bonifacio had to formalize the army. In an order dated 16 Decemberthe revolutionary president redefined the hierarchy of the Katipunan military organization. As commander-in-chief, Bonifacio supervised the planning of military strategies and the preparation of orders, manifests and decrees, adjudicated offenses against the nation, as well as mediated in political disputes.
He directed generals and positioned troops in the fronts. On the basis of command responsibility, all victories and defeats all over the archipelago during his term of office should be attributed to Bonifacio. Foreign Affairs Prior to the outbreak of the revolution, some Filipinos based in Hong Kong acted on behalf of the nationalist movement in the Philippines.
Led by Doroteo Cortes, they solicited funds from various sources, especially from wealthy businessmen and companies. They sent the donations to Jose Maria Basa, who was also based in Hong Kong and served as disbursing officer. Ang Lihim ng ". Snap elections were held, and Aguinaldo was voted president.
Meanwhile, Bonifacio was voted as Director of Interior. Daniel Tirona, a Magdalo, protested Bonifacio's election, claiming he was not qualified for the job. Insulted, Bonifacio, who presided over the election, declared the assembly dissolved.
The next day, Bonifacio and other Magdiwang members created the Acta de Tejeros, a document stating they did not adopt the election results of the convention. Nandoon na 'yung lokohan, panlalait sa mga kandidato na walang pera," Aragon said. On May 10,Bonifacio and his brother Procopio were killed under orders from Aguinaldo, who issued a statement 50 years later saying he had authorized the death sentence as advised by members of the Council of War.
Aguinaldo ordered the commutation of the death sentence, but was convinced otherwise.
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The brothers were killed in the mountain of Maragondon, Cavite, and reports say Bonifacio's wife Gregoria De Jesus was raped by one of Aguinaldo's men. Aragon said De Jesus searched for Bonifacio in the mountains for one month, because she had not been told that her husband was already dead. Kung na sa sitwasyon ka nung kampo ni Aguinaldo, hindi mo rin siya puwedeng hayaan na buhay," Villegas said.
The descendants Unsurprisingly, the descendants of the two men hold different opinions on the matter. Kasi para maging legitimate yung pagpatay sa tao kailangan idaan sa isang due process," said attorney Gregorio Bonifacio, Procopio's great-great-grandson.