Feb 17, Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. The Flow of Funds, to Date and Potential, from the United States to Israel: A Study “Juggling Models of Masculinity: Russian-Jewish Immigrants in the Israeli Army. About this time the first Russian Ashkenazi Jews began to reach Shanghai from Siberia, Prior to that date, only a few Ashkenazi Jews, some of whom deserted from the . This deed goes far to show that Jewish manhood in Shanghai and. Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew: בַּר מִצְוָה ) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys. Bat Mitzvah is a .. called up in synagogue before the entire community dates back to the early years of the Roman Jewish community approximately 2, years ago. Bar mitzvah for 1, immigrant boys from Russia at the Western Wall,
Before long zemstvo village schools powerfully supported the spread of rural literacy. Meanwhile, Dmitry Milyutinan enlightened minister of war, was carrying out an extensive series of reforms affecting nearly every branch of the Russian military organization.
Babushka knows best and other universal truths of the Russian-Jewish experience
The educative role of military service was underlined by a marked improvement of military schools. The army statute of introduced conscription for the first time, making young men of all classes liable to military service. Alexander II, 19th-century coloured woodcut. Their aim and results were the reduction of class privilege, humanitarian progress, and economic development. The personally tolerant emperor had removed or mitigated the heavy disabilities weighing on religious minorities, particularly Jews and sectarians.
Restrictions on foreign travel had been lifted.
Barbarous medieval punishments were abolished. The severity of Russian rule in Poland was relaxed. Yet, notwithstanding these measures, it would be wrong, as is sometimes done, to describe Alexander II as a liberal. Practical experience only strengthened these convictions. Thus, the relaxation of Russian rule in Poland led to patriotic street demonstrations, attempted assassinations, and, finally, into a national uprising that was only suppressed with some difficulty—and under threat of Western intervention on behalf of the Poles.
The government, afterhad reacted increasingly with repressive police measures. A climax was reached in the spring ofwhen Dmitry Karakozova young revolutionary, attempted to kill the emperor. Alexander—who bore himself gallantly in the face of great danger—escaped almost by a miracle.
The attempt, however, left its mark by completing his conversion to conservatism. His sense of guilt, moreover, made him vulnerable to the pressures of the Pan-Slav nationalists, who used the ailing and bigoted empress as their advocate when in Serbia became involved in war with the Ottoman Empire. Although decidedly a man of peace, Alexander became the reluctant champion of the oppressed Slav peoples and in finally declared war on Turkey.
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The occasion was marked by a party without any ritual in the synagogue. The community recognized her as "being of age" and acknowledged her in a public fashion.
Bar and Bat Mitzvah - Wikipedia
This would support more modern documents that record an Orthodox Jewish Italian rite for becoming bat mitzvah which involved an "entrance into the minyan" ceremony, in which boys of thirteen and girls of twelve recited a blessing since the midth century. Kaplanwho held the first public celebration of a bat mitzvah in the United States, for his daughter Judith, on March 18,at the Society for the Advancement of Judaismhis synagogue in New York City.
At the time, most Orthodox rabbis strongly rejected the idea of a bat mitzvah ceremony. The kibbutz movement in Israel also encouraged the celebration of the bar mitzvah. All those coming of age in the community for that year would take on a project and research in a topic of Jewish or Zionist interest.
Today many kibbutz children are opting for a more traditional bar mitzvah celebration. The term has been in use since at least as early as and Bark Mitzvahs are sometimes held as an adjunct to the festival of Purim. Traditionally, common gifts include books with religious or educational value, religious items, writing implements, savings bonds to be used for the child's college educationgift certificates, or money.
Monetary gifts in multiples of 18 are considered to be particularly auspicious and have become very common for the bar and bat mitzvah.
Many b'nai mitzvah also receive their first tallit from their parents to be used for the occasion and tefillin where this is appropriate. Jewelry is a common gift for girls at a bat mitzvah celebration. Another gift for the bat mitzvah girl are Shabbat candlesticks because it is the duty and honour of the woman to light the candles. Adult bar and bat mitzvah While the traditional age to hold a Bar or Bat mitzvah is 13 for boys and 12 or 13 for girls, some adults choose to have a Bar or Bat Mitzvah if they were unable to have them as children.
Since the s, the Adult Bar and Bat Mitzvah have been growing in popularity. It was only gradually that they entered the old-established Hongs or commercial undertakings, and even so, it was the younger generation of Ashkenazi Jews educated in the East, who actually accomplished it. Nevertheless, at no time did the controlling power, both in wealth and political influence of the Ashkenazi Jews in Shanghai, who in numbers are about six times as large, amount to even a sizeable fraction of that of the Sephardi Jews.
Ashkenazi Jews had been migrating to Shanghai since the beginning of the 20th century around but the influx reached substantial proportions only after the collapse of Czarist Russia in Prior to that date, only a few Ashkenazi Jews, some of whom deserted from the Russian Army and possessed an adventurous spirit, had come to Shanghai. Afterhowever, Russian Jews who, together with thousands of White Russians, feared the Communists, fled to Harbin, Manchuria and thence, in most cases, to Shanghai.
These late comers were both culturally and morally, of a much higher standard than the early Ashkenazi pioneers. They did not reach Shanghai simultaneously, as the Russian Revolution lasted in Siberia till Furthermore, many established themselves successfully in Harbin and lived there for several years before leaving for Shanghai when the economic position of the foreigners in Manchuria were undermined by the Japanese authorities. It can be stated, therefore, that the Russian Jews started coming gradually but persistently to Shanghai afterwith the regular emigration increasing during the period of the Japanese occupation of Manchuria in The World War besides affecting Shanghai Jewry to the extent of bringing numerous Russian Jews to this city, did not produce anything spectacular in the community which naturally wholeheartedly supported the Allied effort.
Individual Jews of English, American, French and even Russian nationality joined the fighting forces of their countries. Generally speaking, World War I brought favourable economic repercussions to the entire Far East, particularly Shanghai, as this area, except for occasional German sea raiders and the outburst of fighting in Tsingtao, remained outside the active war zones.
Another advantage consisted in the fact that all the nations bordering the Pacific, including Japan and China, were allies politically, economically and for some time militarily.
The two decades following World War I marked the greatest development in Shanghai's history and also in that of its Jewish community. In one of the most outstanding progress feats of modern times, Shanghai, which had been a fisherman's village and pirates haunt less than a century ago, became the fifth greatest harbour in the world with an aggregate population of about 4, inhabitants.
The city which before the war occupied a small area known as Hongkew and a business district along the waterfront called the Bund, suddenly stretched eastwards, southwards and westwards and, what is more, upwards.
Large skyscrapers and some buildings with escalators began to appear, particularly in the business districts. The value of real estate increased tenfold and even then continued soaring upwards. Trade multiplied itself rapidly, turning Shanghai into the economic nerve-center of the Far East. The imports and exports of Central and to certain extent of North and South China were handled in ever increasing quantities, generally by foreign firms, through the port of Shanghai.
The city grew with such speed that conflicts such as the and Sino-Japanese incidents failed to seriously hinder its progress and prosperity. The Jewish community in Shanghai during these two decades increased both in importance and numbers. The Sassoon and Hardoon interests became extremely important in the realty field, the Hayim interests began to play an important role in public utilities, whilst the Kadoorie interests, besides maintaining their hold on the world-famed Malayan rubber, continued to progress in other directions.
The Sephardi community grew in numbers, with several families arriving from Iraq and India. In a new and extensive Jewish cemetery was acquired in Baikal Road and placed at the disposal of the Sephardi and Ashkenazi communities.
In a most imposing synagogue situated on Seymour Road was presented to the community by Jacob Elias Sassoon who named it the Ohel Rachel Synagogue in memory of his wife Rachel. The synagogue was intended for the congregants of the Beth El Synagogue. In Silas A. Hardoon presented another beautiful synagogue situated on Museum Road which was known as the Beth Aharon Synagogue in memory of his father Aaron. This synagogue was intended for the congregants of the Sheerith Israel Synagogue.
Thus the Sephardi Jewish community maintained two synagogues for regular religious services.
Meanwhile the Jewish community did not neglect education, the Shanghai Jewish School continued progressing and in moved from Dixwell Road in the Hongkew district to Seymour Road, adjacent to the Ohel Rachel Synagogue.
The newly erected premises became the best of their kind in Shanghai. It had a very modern structure and a well-equipped laboratory was installed in The school acquired a reputation in Shanghai for scholastic achievement second to none. The Ashkenazi community also advanced rather rapidly on the path of progress during the two decades following World War I. The division line between the two sections of the Jewish community were gradually narrowed as the Ashkenazim began to take their share of communal life in Shanghai.
Their religious services being different to a certain extent, the Ashkenazim maintained temporary synagogues of their own. The first one, the Ohel Moshe, was set up in in rooms alloted by the Sephardi Sheerit Israel synagogue.
In it moved to new premises on Ward Road in the Hongkew district. The Ashkenazi Jews, constituting mainly Russian-speaking Jews, also formed their own club, where they often spent their evenings.
Nevertheless, a number of joint Sephardi-Ashkenazi activities already indicated the real trend of the times. Both communities sent most of their children to the Shanghai Jewish School which was Sephardi controlled. Furthermore, the Jewish Recreation Club had done excellent work in that direction by bringing the Jewish youth together in various sports activities such as football, tennis, ping-pong, etc.
It included amongst its brethren the leaders of both the Sephardi and Ashkenazi communities and had therefore done a great deal to unite them. The Bnai Brith Lodge also operated the local Bnai Brith Hospital for destitute Jews who were given free medical treatment and even hospitalization if necessary.
The Ashkenazi community also maintained a Shelter House for aged Jews who had no means of subsistence. The Ashkenazi community had its own rabbi, Rabbi Ashkenazi, and a fully qualified shochet. The Sephardi community was governed by a body known as the Jewish Communal Association which controlled all Sephardi activities and also employed a rabbi, Rev. The affairs of the Shanghai Jewish Community were running very smoothly when the Sino-Japanese conflict broke out in August Horace Kadoorie had just come into being and had organized, with the Shanghai University [St.
John's] situated on the outskirts of the city, to send out boys and girls to spend the summer on the campus. The children had a wonderful vacation there, the food was excellent, the accommodations very good and the program left nothing to be desired. But hardly had the children returned to Shanghai when suddenly, on August 13th, the city was thrown into the throes of war. During the first days of the Sino-Japanese conflict nearly persons were killed and wounded by air-raids in the streets of Shanghai, amongst them several Jews.
The northern areas of the city comprising Chapei which was under Chinese jurisdiction, and the Hongkew district of the International Settlement, were badly damaged by artillery and naval bombardment, as well as by aerial attacks. Shanghai lived in a state bordering on panic for over two months, with the outskirts gutted by fire and an occasional shell or bomb exploding in the central areas. Foreigners of all nationalities began to evacuate the city.
Most of them, especially those with small children, went temporarily to Hongkong with British passports. It was during those hectic days that a deed of heroism was performed and which will always remain recorded in the annals of the Jewish Community of Shanghai. Three Jewish young men serving in the S. They returned safely though not before numerous shots had been fired at them and their tin helmets had been partly perforated.
Alexander II | emperor of Russia | thebluetones.info
This deed goes far to show that Jewish manhood in Shanghai and elsewhere can display as much physical courage as any other when something has to be accomplished. The hostilities around Shanghai affected numerous Ashkenazi Jews who had been residing in and possessed property in Hongkew. These people had to move to the undestroyed areas south of Soochow Creek. Some settled with their more fortunate relatives, others were given financial assistance which was obtained from American and Shanghai sources.
It was inafter the hostilities in Shanghai's immediate vicinity had been concluded and the city was living through its worst economic crisis, that an event of unprecedented importance for the Shanghai Jewish Community occurred: Sincewhen the Nazis seized power in Germany and proclaimed themselves openly anti-Semitic, the Shanghai Jews sympathized with the victims of this remorseless persecution.
But little did they imagine that they would be called upon to support a large number of their brethren and that Shanghai would become the new residence of many of these refugees in a not very distant future. During the first five years of Hitler's regime only a few Jews belonging to the wealthy class or those enjoying world-wide professional fame left the Reich.
They migrated to neighbouring European countries, some even went to the U. A few, mainly physicians and dentists, came to Shanghai and the economic conditions prevailing before being favourable, they established themselves successfully. In November the Nazis, feeling themselves sufficiently strong to confront the world's public opinion, pounced on the Von Rath incident and commenced a systematic anti-Jewish campaign of unprecedented proportions.
Jews were hustled away to notorious concentration camps such as Dachau and Buchenwald, properties were confiscated and Jewish shops were looted. It was then that the decision was taken that the German and Austrian Jews had to emigrate, unless they wished to face total extinction. It is to the credit and honour of the American government and people that the U. In searching for a haven of refuge, both the various committees and individuals found that by this time most countries had hermetically sealed their doors to Jewish refugees, either because of unemployment or because of the impending World War.