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The good news is you're the pilot. Nissan India, the Indian arm of the Japanese automobile The 5, square feet showroom will include a display area manufacturer Nissan is planning to launch its own financial capable of displaying eight cars. The facility will also house services in order to provide loans and financial benefits to the an Audi Shop where a variety of Audi merchandise can be customers of its soon to be launched revived low cost brand availed by the customers.
Also, an exclusive Audi service Datsun. The service facility is by April and is looking at creating a financial arm for capable of servicing twelve cars in one day in a single shift providing convenient financial services to the Datsun across six bays. Ajay Raghuvanshi Vice- Speaking at the occasion, Mr. K Subramaniam CEO Audi President Business Management Nissan Motor India, the Mangalore and Audi Bangalore stated that the new Audi upcoming Datsun brand requires a different and a separate Mangalore showroom will cater to the increasing demand marketing strategy in comparison to the existing distribution for luxury cars in Karnataka.
He stated that the target customers for the With the opening of the new showroom, Audi India is inching Datsun will be a different set of consumers from the regular closer to the target of 34 dealerships before the end of the Nissan customers.
The Datsun car brand will be focused at first-time car buyers Renault India now has four dealerships in Bangalore who will require finance assistance for a car loan. The new 5, square feet dealership With the launch of its financial services, Nissan will the join takes the total count of shops in Bangalore to four and will the ranks of a few other automakers who have initiated their be displaying the complete range of car models offered by own financial services arm such as Toyota, BMW and the carmaker in India.
Hero MotoCorp, the largest motorcycle The opening of the new dealership is part of the automaker's manufacturer in India has also ventured into the financial expansion strategy for its dealership network. According to services sector with Hero FinCorp which offers finance Mr. Mangalore The French automaker currently has 32 dealerships in the Audi India, the Indian arm of the German luxury automobile Southern part of India and a total of dealerships across manufacturer Audi has opened its 30th showroom in India at India.
The carmaker targets dealerships and 10 percent Mangalore, the second showroom in the state of Karnataka. And never want as long as you live. The Datsun brand is expected to see an India launch in the India is one of the few automobile markets for Mercedes stuff you throw awaywould take to decompose? Moreover, the automaker has Benz, where the automaker has launched its Center of plans to increase focus on rural and semi urban areas in India Excellence. Volkswagen India expects to drive volumes with According to Mr.
Matthias Lurhs Vice President for Global Budget Car and UP Sales Mercedes Benz, the new center will provide Volkswagen India, the Indian arm of the German automobile prospective customers the complete brand experience along manufacturer Volkswagen is set to launch the Volkswagen with options to personalize and customize the AMG vehicles, UP small city car and the Budget Car small car in the Indian including both exterior as well interiors of the cars.
While it is unclear as to when the new car models Mr. Eberhard Kern Managing Director and Chief Executive will hit the Indian markets, the carmaker expects to drive Mercedes Benz India commented at the launch of the Center volume sales with the two new car models in India. Mahesh Kodumudi effort to create customer differentiation and establish President and Managing Director Volkswagen India who industry best practices. Kodumudi further stated that the Indian auto market is a difficult retail market in comparison to other markets in the 8 7 4 9 2 5 1 6 3 world and while deciding which products to introduce in the market, the company has to take decisions for the long term 9 6 3 4 8 1 2 5 7 as far as more than a decade.
He made other significant contributions as the senior Indian official looking after environmental policy, law, institutions and international cooperation, including responsibility for all global environmental issues.
During this state tenure, he was responsible for planning and implementation of many water supply, irrigation and energy projects. She organizes public—private partnerships for environmental innovation, harmonizes international standards to speed technology market penetration, and directly promotes technology transfer with information, leadership pledges and conferences. In the Climate Protection Partnerships Division she brought together a team of international experts from industry, government, military, and standards organizations who are removing global barriers to climate-friendly refrigerants.
The success of her team will allow vehicle manufacturers to market environmentally superior technology worldwide with confidence and safety.
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Prior to her latest promotion, she was a technical writer and a marketing associate for the Energy Star programme for new homes. Foreword Throughout the world, the Montreal Protocol is viewed as a great success and a tribute to institutions, countries, and individuals that made it happen.
Responding to the appeal of the Parties to the Protocol, the GEF provided financial assistance to them at a crucial juncture and enabled them to implement the Protocol. In 15 years, from tothese countries have decreased their consumption of ozone-depleting substances from abouttonnes to tonnes — a reduction of over 99 percent. Global environmental problems cannot be treated in isolation. At the GEF, we increasingly work with countries to intervene across domains to address climate change, biodiversity conservation, sustainable land management and chemicals management, including pollution of international waters from persistent organic pollutants POPs.
The GEF strategies for climate change, POPs and ozone layer-depletion are indicative of the flexibility that we exercise. Within each domain of intervention, project developers are encouraged to seek synergies and co-benefits with the other areas: This ability to work across global environmental issues is one of the greatest strengths of the GEF.
There are two potential ways in which the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances might increase the risk of climate change: The GEF funds the conversion to technologies that have the least impact on xx Technology Transfer for the Ozone Layer global warming while being technically feasible, environmentally sound and economically acceptable.
It shows that technology conversions in many enterprises were instrumental in helping a number of sectors to modernize and adapt to a market economy. I am pleased that the authors are recording this vital technology transfer story. A performance study of GEF has praised the Montreal Protocol process for its emphasis on clear goals and for creating an enabling environment for alternatives. The authors of this book have succeeded in bringing out the best from this process.Mixing Polyurethane Foam Liquid
I hope that the stakeholders of climate and other treaties will examine these lessons and adopt those that are suitable for their circumstances. It tells the remarkable story of how governments, industry, consumers and the concerned public can, when faced with an environmental change crisis that threatens the health of the planet, work quickly and creatively to transform markets. As such it holds lessons on how to deal with other mutual and common challenges facing the environment, livelihoods, economic stability and human health across a wide range of spheres.
The story of the Montreal Protocol is worth repeating in all its detail. The preamble of the Protocol says the Parties to the Protocol are: Piloted by UNEP, the Montreal Protocol allowed developing countries more time than developed countries to implement the control measures so that alternative technology would be mature and affordable.
Inon the urging of developing countries, developed countries agreed to finance the incremental costs of the phaseout in developing countries with its own financial mechanism xxii Technology Transfer for the Ozone Layer called the Multilateral Fund. Inthe Global Environment Facility GEF was created by the Governments to deal with a wide range of global environmental issues, including ozone depletion. The GEF financed the incremental costs of those eligible countries not qualifying for financing under the MLF, including the countries of Eastern Europe and central Asia with economies in transition.
The original control measures of the Protocol were repeatedly strengthened by the Parties to the Protocol on the basis of periodic scientific and technological assessments to provide for the phaseout of nearly a hundred ozone depleting chemicals on a specified time schedule. The success of the Protocol is now acknowledged by all, even though the phaseout of the ozone-depleting chemicals is by no means complete.
Technological cooperation over the last 20 years has led to outstanding reductions of over 95 per cent in the consumption of ozone-depleting chemicals. Continuing scientific observations through satellites, balloons and ground-based observation have confirmed this reduction, as elaborated in the periodic reports of the Scientific Assessment Panel.
Protection of the ozone layer involved a large number of stakeholders. Many United Nations organizations did their part, including: International financial institutions, such as the World Bank and the Global Environment Facility, and national financial institutions also played an invaluable part in implementation.
Industry and industrial organizations eschewed their usual competitive spirit and shared technologies and techniques to phase out ozone-depleting chemicals. Nongovernmental organizations not only kept an alert eye on the issue and sounded the alarm when necessary, but also developed ozone-safe technologies and spread awareness about such technologies. National governments employed many regulatory, economic and policy instruments to achieve the phaseout as planned.
Technology Transfer for the Ozone Layer: Lessons for Climate Change
Does the success of the Montreal Protocol process suggest any advice for other global environmental treaties? While the treaties differ from one another, there are many common strands among them. Most, if not all, treaties aim at replacing some of the current environment-unfriendly technologies with environmentally sound technologies.
This is precisely the challenge met by the Montreal Protocol process. It would be sensible for the world community to study the process and adopt its useful features so that time is not lost by reinventing the wheel with every Preface xxiii convention. I am grateful to Stephen O. It was a labour of love for them. They obtained contributions to this study from many of the people who made it a triumph.
It is a timely contribution on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Montreal Protocol. We are grateful for her thoughtful Foreword to this book. We have the greatest respect for Ms Lani Sinclair — our experienced editor for this and the previous book Protecting the Ozone Layer: The United Nations History — who ironed out our English and helped us clarify our thoughts. Earthscan and their editorial team — Mr Hamish Ironside, Mr Robert West, and Ms Alison Kuznets — worked beyond the call of duty with recommendations that strengthened the presentation, accuracy and style.
Special thanks to Ms Samira DeGobert for guiding our choice of art and graphics. We are grateful to Dr Melanie Miller and Ms Marta Pizano for their chapter on technology transfer for eliminating methyl bromide.
Their perceptive comments and amendments to the text strengthen the findings. In addition, each chapter was reviewed for technical accuracy and clarity by experts. Two dozen of the most respected practitioners of ozone-safe technology transfer contributed text that illustrates how daunting technical and business challenges are overcome. These perspectives are contributed by: No colleagues are more valuable than those who grant informed access to the files and reports that are primary sources for analysis.
Ms Gouthami, one of the daughters of Mr Sarma, deserves his thanks for providing him with the necessary facilities for writing for a considerable time period. We have benefited substantially from the many contributions and for the review of our drafts by experts, but we are responsible for any errors or omissions in this book. The views expressed by individual authors are their own. Mention of trade names, products, or services does not convey official EPA, GEF, or author approval, endorsement, or recommendation.
Madhava Sarma and Kristen N. Taddonio Introduction The Ozone treaties have been extraordinarily fortunate, born under the right stars as it were. There are thousands of inviduals and institutions connected to the ozone layer issue over the past 33 years and each of them works with missionary zeal to protect the ozone layer.
The treaties owe their success to this zeal, which continues to this day. First came the scientists. Sherwood Rowland — were the first to discover the link between CFCs and ozone depletion. They also made a passionate plea for practical action, and this gave rise to a ban on CFCs in aerosols by many countries.
This also led to diplomatic action by UNEP beginning in For the first time, scientists played a direct part in diplomatic negotiations and helped the governments not only to understand the phenomenon of ozone depletion and its adverse effects, but also to give concrete policy options, with each option leading to a particular impact on the ozone layer.
The technologists were on hand to analyse the technical and economic feasibility of alternatives, so that governments could make up their minds after weighing all the consequences — environmental, technical and financial.
The industry threw their awesome talent into discovering alternatives to the ozone-depleting substances and spreading these alternative technologies and processes throughout the world. Many professionals throughout the world joined the effort and contributed their best. The NGOs not only contributed their watchful attention but also helped in bringing to light the hitherto unnoticed ozone-safe technologies.
The depletion of the ozone layer was by far the most serious global environmental problem ever faced by humanity. The objective of the ozone treaties was certainly a difficult one: Behind them were the billions of consumers who wanted and needed the products that contained ozone-depleting chemicals: The Multilateral Fund created by the Montreal Protocol has worked wonders to enable every developing country in the world to join the effort. When the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia faced great economic and political problems, the Global Environmental Facility stepped in to ensure that those countries phased out the ozone-depleting substances, despite their troubles.
The implementation of the Protocol over the last 20 years has led to outstanding reductions of over 95 per cent in the consumption of ozonedepleting chemicals through changing to ozone-safe technologies according to the timetable set by the Montreal Protocol. What was the process that led to such a success throughout the world? Can it be replicated in other situations of threat to global environment? These questions are very relevant in this year of the twentieth anniversary of the Montreal Protocol.
The lessons would be useful to the future actions of the Protocol in completing the remaining tasks of the phaseout. Perhaps other multilateral agreements could also gain some advantage by studying the process of the Montreal Protocol.
I am grateful to the authors who have taken the trouble over the past two years to prepare this insightful study into the ways and means of effectively transferring information, knowledge and technology, and supporting national capacity-building within the Ozone Layer Protection Treaties.
The United Nations History. It is an account of how technology was developed, commercialized and transferred to companies in countries — rich and poor, east and west, and north and south — in order to halt, within a prescribed time schedule, the production and use of chemical substances that destroy the ozone layer.
Throughout its existence, the United Nations has been at the forefront of efforts to protect the global environment. The making of environmental law has been an essential part of that undertaking.
Today there are nearly environmental treaties, covering issues such as marine and air pollution, hazardous waste, biodiversity, desertification, and climate change. Development, commercialization and transfer of environmentally sound technologies are the crux of these treaties, and this includes the ozone treaties. In recent years there have been several debates in the international forums of the United Nations and the World Trade Organization on the obstacles to transfer of, and change to, environmentally sound technologies, particularly for the developing countries.
These obstacles encompass institutional, social, political, technical and economic factors. Experience regarding ozone-friendly technologies is now more than 20 years old. This book analyses this experience, in the hope that it will both benefit the Montreal Protocol, since there is much more to be done to achieve its objectives, and help the global environmental agreements that protect climate: There will be some who will protest that the climate treaties do not need advice or that, if they do need advice, the Montreal Protocol experience is not relevant to the climate treaties since the issues are very different.
We agree that the issues are different, as indeed any two issues are. However, in this book we hope to convince you and others responsible for protecting the climate that the lessons of the Montreal Protocol process are transferable to many situations.
It is a fact that climate change is already occurring. Scientists have noted the existence of change, as well as the adverse effects thereof. They have, through 2 Technology Transfer for the Ozone Layer the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, given dire warnings about the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions from human activities, and have urged the world to take urgent action.
It is also a fact that the climate treaties have not achieved much so far. The UNFCCC is now 15 years old, the Kyoto Protocol 9, and the progress made by these treaties is miniscule compared to the progress made by the Montreal Protocol at a similar time stage.
The immense complexity of the issues involved may be one reason for the lack of results. However, we will demonstrate that the issues involved in the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances ODSs were also complex. We include detailed sector-wise accounts of this phaseout to shed light on the lessons of the Montreal Protocol process, but a technically disinclined reader can skip the technical details and still keep track of the creativity displayed by thousands of ozone actors in order to resolve the problems that arose.
The Montreal Protocol experience dispels many myths and reveals many surprises. It will surprise you to learn that technologies to protect the ozone layer came from many parts of the world even before the Protocol entered into force; that concern for future generations motivated unprecedented access to intellectual property often without charge ; that military organizations motivated technical solutions to the most challenging applications; that the cost of financing the incremental costs of technology for countries with economies in transition and developing countries was far less than anyone imagined; and that specialized institutions can outperform large industrial and financial institutions normally charged with carrying out international technology projects.
Governments, scientists, industry, non-governmental organizations and the United Nations system set aside their differences and came together to fight against the catastrophic threat of stratospheric ozone depletion. However, the picture is not perfect, and some mistakes were made. We hope that this book will help others to avoid these mistakes in the future.
The industries that used the ozone-depleting substances are very diverse: There were many large enterprises that had the resources to develop new and innovative ozone-friendly technologies, but there were also many small enterprises that needed to be educated on such technologies and how to access them.
The governments of developed countries implemented many policies, regulations, awareness and education campaigns, and financial incentives and disincentives to promote ozone-safe technologies. These were later followed by the developing countries, who introduced additional policy innovations. A considerable body of literature has been published by governments as well as by Prologue 3 scholars.
We have relied on these studies to discern some key features of technology change in the countries involved. The developing countries are eligible for assistance from the Multilateral Fund, which the Protocol set up in under Article 10, to meet the incremental costs of implementing ozone-depleting substance control measures.
We have analysed the completion reports of about such projects in order to find answers to the many questions on the various facets of technology change.
They had communist economic systems. The Meeting of the Parties to the Protocol did not consider these countries to be developing countries.