Luminescence dating refers to a group of methods of determining how long ago mineral grains In , the principles behind optical and thermoluminescence dating were extended to include surfaces made of granite, basalt and sandstone, . Currently, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence radiation protection dosimetry, geological and archeological dating; research lab . Thermoluminescence, radioluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectra of alkali feldspars N.A. SpoonerThe validity of optical dating based on feldspar.
Depending on the depth of the traps the energy required to free an electron from them the storage time of trapped electrons will vary as some traps are sufficiently deep to store charge for hundreds of thousands of years.
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In practical use[ edit ] In thermoluminescence dating, these long-term traps are used to determine the age of materials: When irradiated crystalline material is again heated or exposed to strong light, the trapped electrons are given sufficient energy to escape. In the process of recombining with a lattice ion, they lose energy and emit photons light quantadetectable in the laboratory.What is the thermoluminescence dating
The amount of light produced is proportional to the number of trapped electrons that have been freed which is in turn proportional to the radiation dose accumulated.
In order to relate the signal the thermoluminescence—light produced when the material is heated to the radiation dose that caused it, it is necessary to calibrate the material with known doses of radiation since the density of traps is highly variable.
Thermoluminescence dating presupposes a "zeroing" event in the history of the material, either heating in the case of pottery or lava or exposure to sunlight in the case of sedimentsthat removes the pre-existing trapped electrons.
Therefore, at that point the thermoluminescence signal is zero. As time goes on, the ionizing radiation field around the material causes the trapped electrons to accumulate Figure 2.
In the laboratory, the accumulated radiation dose can be measured, but this by itself is insufficient to determine the time since the zeroing event. The Radiation Dose Rate - the dose accumulated per year-must be determined first. This is commonly done by measurement of the alpha radioactivity the uranium and thorium content and the potassium content K is a beta and gamma emitter of the sample material. Often the gamma radiation field at the position of the sample material is measured, or it may be calculated from the alpha radioactivity and potassium content of the sample environment, and the cosmic ray dose is added in.
Luminescence dating - Wikipedia
A sample in which the mineral grains have all been exposed to sufficient daylight seconds for quartz; hundreds of seconds for potassium feldspar can be said to be of zero age; when excited it will not emit any such photons.
The older the sample is, the more light it emits, up to a saturation limit.
Minerals[ edit ] The minerals that are measured are usually either quartz or potassium feldspar sand-sized grains, or unseparated silt-sized grains.
There are advantages and disadvantages to using each.
Thermoluminescence dating - Wikipedia
For quartz, blue or green excitation frequencies are normally used and the near ultra-violet emission is measured. For potassium feldspar or silt-sized grains, near infrared excitation IRSL is normally used and violet emissions are measured. Comparison to radiocarbon dating[ edit ] Unlike carbon datingluminescence dating methods do not require a contemporary organic component of the sediment to be dated; just quartz, potassium feldspar, or certain other mineral grains that have been fully bleached during the event being dated.
In a study of the chronology of arid-zone lacustrine sediments from Lake Ulaan in southern MongoliaLee et al. Westerly winds delivered an influx of 14 C-deficient carbon from adjacent soils and Paleozoic carbonate rocks, a process that is also active today.
This reworked carbon changed the measured isotopic ratios, giving a false older age. However, the wind-blown origin of these sediments were ideal for OSL dating, as most of the grains would have been completely bleached by sunlight exposure during transport and burial.