Francisco Morazán - Wikipedia
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Prado's Federal troops at the 'Las Charcas' ranch. Military operations continued, with great success for the allied army. Immediately thereafter President Arce, Mariano Aycinena, Mariano Beltranena, and all the officials who had had some role in the war were sent to prison. After these events, the General ran the country dictatorially, until senator Juan Barrundia took over on June 25, He was inaugurated on September In his inaugural speech he declared: I must obey and fulfill, the solemn oath that I have just rendered.
I offer, to uphold the Federal Constitution, which I defended as a soldier and as a citizen.
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The General was now in position to advance his liberal reforms. Through them, he attempted to dismantle what he felt were archaic Spanish institutions,  and to give to his people a society based upon general education, religious liberty and social and political equality. They oversaw the building of schools and roads, enacted free trade policies, invited foreign capital and immigrants, allowed secular marriage and divorce and freedom of speech, tried to make public lands available to the expanding cochineal economy, separated church from state, abolished tithesproclaimed religious liberties, confiscated church property, suppressed religious orders, and removed education from church control,  among other policies.
All of this new approved legislation struck a blow at the heart of the Guatemalan oligarchy. But more importantly, it stripped the Spanish clergy of their privileges, and curtailed their power. According to historian Mary Wilhelmine Williams: Some laws were intended to protect the state from the clergy They used their influence against him and the Liberal Party during the civil war.
They also had opposed the reforms, particularly those in the interest of general education which the Liberals were determined to push. From that point forward, rumors about the need to reform the constitution began. According to the constitution, elections needed to be held in order to elect the next president of the Republic.
Valle, however, died before taking office. Most historians agree that had he lived, he might have brought conciliation and harmony between the opposing forces Liberals and Conservatives. On February 14, End of the federation[ edit ] By Central America became five independent small nations In February there occurred in Central America a series of events that ignited a revolution that culminated with the fall of the Federation.
An epidemic of cholera scourged Guatemala leaving approximately people dead and infected with the bacteria. The epidemic struck especially the poor and the Indians in the highlands of the state.
At the time when it appeared, the Indians of the district of Mita, influenced by their priests, were much perturbed over the system of trial by jury incomprehensible to them which was being introduced. But these measures were of little help because the Indians continued to die. The local priests spread the rumor that the government had poisoned the rivers and streams for the purpose of wiping out the indigenous population, and repopulating it with foreigners.
In proof, they pointed to a recent grant of territory in Vera Paz made to a British colonization company. A cry was then raised by the frantic Indians against their supposed murderers. The governor sent an army to try to stop the revolt.
But the army's measures were so repressive, that it only made matters worse. Carrera was an illiterate,  but shrewd and charismatic swineherd turned highwayman, whom the rebels wanted as their leader.
They devised various tricks to favor the delusion, which were heralded as miracles. A letter was let down from the roof of one of the churches, in the midst of a vast congregation of Indians, which was supposed to come from the Virgin Mary, commissioning Carrera to lead a revolt against the government.
Encouraged by these events the conservatives joined in. Galvez had relinquished power, Congress tried to restore some life to the Federal Government by transferring control of their custom revenues.
But Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica opposed this move and used it as an opportunity to leave the union. In the end a failure at compromise, the power of the church, bitter infighting between conservatives and liberals, and the quest for personal glory were the main reasons for the downfall of the 'Federation'. Carrera called on the Salvadorian people to rise against their government.
After their defeat, the humiliated generals and their troops fled to neighboring states, leaving behind over three hundred dead. He gathered what he thought were enough Salvadorean forces to face Carrera, and with them marched to Guatemala. Carrera pulled most of his own force out of the capital, leaving only a small, very visible garrison inside.
The battle became notorious for its savagery and revealed the ruthless side of Carrera. He then ordered an increase in fire from three corners of the plaza, in order to attract attention, while he himself slipped out through the fourth corner of the plaza with a small escort, to escape back to El Salvador.
The 'Liberal reforms' had not produced enough results for the citizenry; moreover, they resented some of these reforms. This was the case with the Livingston Codewhich changed the system of taxation, among other reforms. Character of General Morazan[ edit ] http: He left from the port of La Libertad in El Salvador, and embarked on the schooner Izalco accompanied by 30 of his closest friends and war veterans.
He stopped in Costa Rica where he sought and obtained political asylum for most of his companions. Seven continued on the journey to South America with him. Outraged by this and by the chain of insults and slander against him by some members of the press, he wrote and published his famous 'Manifest of David' dated July 16, Braulio Carrillogovernor of that state, had restricted individual liberties, placed limits on freedom of the press, and derogated the Political Constitution of He replaced it with a new constitutional charter, denominated "Law of Bases and Guarantees", where he declared himself 'Chief of State for Life'.
Furthermore, Carrillo declared Costa Rica a free and independent state. Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Chile were all involved in a twelve-year war, which brought about a train of baneful stages of chaos, among all countries involved. Aroundthe English began to intervene in the Mosquito territory, located between Honduras and Nicaragua.
With the financial backing of General Pedro Bermudez, he departed from Callao on board the "Crusader" in late December He and his companions made stops in Guayaquil, Ecuador and Chiriqui where he met with his family before returning to Central America. He made himself available to the Central American leaders for the common defense against the British intervention.
On February 16,he told his countrymen that his return was a "duty" and a "irresistible national sentiment", not only for him but for all "those who have a heart for their homeland.
Carrillo, a reformer responsible for the expansion of coffee production in Costa Rica, had taken the first steps towards ending Costa Rica's political links with Central America. He then travelled to Acajutla, San Salvador and Sonsonate where he was able to reactivate the local forces.
There he organized a military contingent of about men. They signed "The Jocote Accord". Thereafter Chief Carrillo was forced to accept the treaty. He approved it only when some modifications were added. He then abolished the laws that Carrillo had imposed limiting trade and property, restored individual and political rights,  devoted himself to urgent reforms, and convened the Constituent Assembly, which appointed him Supreme Chief of the Costa Rican State.
This troubled Costa Ricans; they feared Rafael Carrera would intervene in their affairs, specially after Guatemala broke ties with them. After all, the restoration of the 'Union' was a cause they didn't believe in. The fighting continued bloody and relentless, and the insurgents increased towhile the besieged diminished. In it, he calls his death "murder" and declares, "I do not have enemies, nor the smaller resentment I take to the grave against my murderers, I forgive them and wish them the greatest good.
Seated next to him was Gen. But his name cannot fail to brighten the history of ideas in Central America, because he knew how to instill in them; the power of his sincerity, the passion that inflamed him, and his faith in the future, like men of vision who always think big.
Thus, promoting education, immigration, established freedom of worship and the press. When liberalism seemed to finally find the opportunity to implement its noblest principles, after a long process of integration as ideological tendency, as a political group and as a power option, the liberal regime was unable to achieve cohesion within the Central American society. The Liberals' sustained fight against the aristocracy and their quest to exclude conservatives from political life was not accompanied by a parallel effort to integrate other sectors such as indigenous people, The bulk of the population to the national modern project that they so vehemently postulated.
The indigenous people never found the liberal proposal to be attractive enough, so as to break free from the deep rooted ancient order taught by the Church and the stability they have had for three centuries under the colonial regime. The clerical and aristocratic forces staged a strong anti-liberal building block taking advantage of the fanaticism and discontent that permeated large sections of the population, especially in the state of Guatemala. He gave his life however unsuccessfully, attempting to preserve the 'Union'.Caudillo
Now, more than years after his death, Central America is still plagued by power struggles,  corruption,   and poverty. His image can be found in bills, logos, and stamps. On March 14, The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. November This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Flag of Venezuela until The discovery of massive oil deposits in Lake Maracaibo during World War I  proved to be pivotal for Venezuela and transformed the basis of its economy from a heavy dependence on agricultural exports.
It prompted an economic boom that lasted into the s; byVenezuela's per capita gross domestic product was Latin America's highest. He remained the most powerful man in Venezuela until his death inalthough at times he ceded the presidency to others.
Angarita granted a range of reforms, including the legalization of all political parties.
The expansion of the Venezuelan economy in this period was based on the indebtedness of the Venezuelan nation and that was one of the causes of the economic crisis in Venezuela in the s,  in which important projects such as the Urban Center El Recreo de Marcel Brauer on Avenida Casanova in Sabana Grande district were paralyzed.
It was an antecedent of the populist and paternalistic economic regime of the later democratic regimes. The malaise over the debts of Venezuela reached the barracks and the national business. The two first parties would dominate the political landscape for four decades.
Most of these movements laid down their arms under Rafael Caldera 's first presidency — ; Caldera had won the election for COPEI, being the first time a party other than Democratic Action took the presidency through a democratic election. The new democratic order had its antagonists. Betancourt suffered an attack planned by the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo inand the leftists excluded from the Pact initiated an armed insurgency by organizing themselves in the Armed Forces of National Liberation, sponsored by the Communist Party and Fidel Castro.
At the same time, Betancourt promoted an international doctrine in which he only recognized elected governments by popular vote. The construction industry was revitalized through the "rediscount" of the Central Bank of Venezuela. The Economic Recovery Plan fulfilled its objectives and inVenezuela was able to return to an anchored exchange rate, with free purchase and sale of foreign currency. This system lasted until the Venezuelan Black Friday ofalthough the model was already running out at the end of the seventies.
For much of the period between andthe Venezuelan economy was characterized by its stability and sustained strength, factors that contributed decisively to being able to maintain a fixed exchange rate without major inconveniences. The economic bonanza also had the characteristics of an economic bubble, but Venezuelans remember the "Ta barato, dame dos".
This led to massive increases in public spending, but also increases in external debts, which continued into the s when the collapse of oil prices during the s crippled the Venezuelan economy. As the government started to devalue the currency in February to face its financial obligations, Venezuelans' real standards of living fell dramatically. A number of failed economic policies and increasing corruption in government led to rising poverty and crime, worsening social indicators, and increased political instability.
Most of these works had been previously planned. This translated into sustained increases in the average real wage and an improvement in the condition of life.
In the government of Jaime Lusinchi —an attempt was made to solve the problem. Unfortunately, the measures failed. After a long period of accelerated economic expansion that lasts for six decades value of the stock of homes by familiesan extreme higher value is reached towards