Land reform in Mexico - Wikipedia
The extraordinary story of Porfirio Ramírez Aldana stirred Colombia on .. Buenos Aires, Argentina T +54 9 11 E [email protected] The problem arises when her niece sets up a date on her behalf with her online suitor. Los monopolios y latifundios presionaban sobre el gobierno para que no lleve a. CU Amecameca. Contacto: [email protected] 11Isagoge, la obra de Porfirio que comenta el Organon de Aristóteles. Encontré una. thebluetones.info .. Dating back to colonial times under the Spanish crown, land acquisition was an urban society, as opposed to an agricultural, latifundista society. President: Porfirio Lobo Sosa.
But the social and economic problems that resulted from this concentration of ownership brought reformist solutions that attempted to reverse this trend.
In the current era, there is a retreat from agrarian land reform and a return to consolidation of land holding of large enterprises. Prehispanic era[ edit ] Aztec maize agriculture as depicted in the Florentine Codex The rich lands of central and southern Mexico were the home to dense, hierarchically organized, settled populations that produced agricultural surpluses, allowing the development of sectors that did not directly cultivate the soil.
The Annales School and the Environmental History of Latin America
These populations lived in settlements and held land in common, although generally they worked individual plots. During the Aztec period, roughly tothe Nahuas of central Mexico had names for civil categories of land, many of which persisted into the colonial era.
Lands owned by the calpulli, the local kin-based social organization, were calpullalli. A community member could lose those usufruct rights if they did not cultivate the land.
A person could lose land as a result of gambling debts,  a type of alienation from which the inference can be drawn that land was private property.
Land reform in Mexico
It is important to note that there were lands classified as "purchased land" in Nahuatl, tlalcohualli. Litigation over title to property date from the very early colonial era. Most notable is the dispute over lands held by don Carlos Ometochtzin of Texcoco, who was executed by the inquisition in The Oztoticpac Lands Map of Texcoco is documentation for the dispute following his death.
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These grants did not include land, which in the immediate post-conquest era was not as important as the tribute and labor service that Indians could provide as a continuation from the prehispanic period. Spaniards were interested in appropriating products and labor from their grants, but they saw no need to acquire the land itself. The crown began to phase out the encomienda in the midth century by limiting the number of times the grant could be inherited.
At the same time, the indigenous population was decreasing due to epidemics and Spanish migration to Mexico created a demand for foodstuffs familiar to them, such as wheat rather than maize, European fruits, and animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats for meat and hides or wool. Spaniards began acquiring land and securing labor separate from the encomienda grants. This was the initial stage of the formation of Spanish landed estates. There is evidence that nobles sold common land to Spaniards, treating that land as private property.
In the 17th century, Indian populations began to recover, but the loss of land could not be reversed. Indian communities rented land to Spanish haciendas, which over time left those lands vulnerable to appropriation.
There were crown regulations about sale or rental of Indian lands, with requirements for the public posting of the proposed transaction and an investigation as to whether the land on offer was, in fact, the property of the ones offering it. In theory, there was to be an investigation to see if there were claims on the property, with notice given to those in the vicinity of the proposed grant.
Others took up residence on haciendas on a permanent basis. Others migrated to the cities or to other regions, such as the northern mining districts where labor was well paid.
However, many indigenous communities continued to exist with the fundo legal held in common a guarantee of some access to land. In the 18th century, the Spanish crown was concerned about concentration of land in the hands of a few in Spain and the lack of productiveness of those landed estates.
He saw the need for disentailment of landed estates, sale of land owned by the Catholic Church and privatizing common lands as key to making agriculture more productive in Spain. Humboldt incorporated it into his Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain,  an important text on economic and social conditions in New Spain around The landed elite and the Catholic Church as an institution were closely connected financially.
Through the institution of the chantry, a family would lien income from a particular piece of property to pay a priest to say masses for the soul of the one endowing the funds. In many cases, families had sons who had become priests and the chantry became a source of income for the family member. At the turn of the 19th century the Spanish crown attempted to tap what it thought was the vast wealth of the church by demanding that those holding mortgages pay the principal as a lump sum immediately rather than incrementally over the long term.
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University of Chicago Press Santiago Vidaurri and the Southern Confederacy. The Southern Exodus to Mexico: University of Nebraska Press Moseley, "Vidaurri, Santiago," accessed March 14,http: Some sources give as his date of birth, but the baptismal record shows