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From the point of view of architecture this country is inspiring and instructive. Switzerland has a long tradition of competitions and an advanced competitions system that evidently encourages professional renewal. But here, too, external forces challenge the tradition. One threat is the changeover from open competitions to invited ones, making it hard for young architects to succeed in the competitive battle against established architectural offices with good references and a sound reputation.
The competition as a tool for tendering makes for an administrative and legal displacement of the centre of gravity. Katsakou also points to the new modes of representation, computer-based images, as an internal challenge.
The contestants produce visualizations that are increasingly true to life in their architectural projects of future examples of environment, which makes clients believe that the conceptual proposals are ready to be built. The competition projects are rendered as elaborated ones before the jury has chosen the winner and the organizer has given the 1st prize winner the design commission.
The new ways of visualizing architectural projects have a photographic precision that affects both the image and the understanding of its contents. The third contribution to the book gives an account of the way in which the architectural competition in Sweden has been used as a sociopolitical instrument in the development of appropriate dwellings for an aging population, a challenge that Sweden shares with many welfare states.
Andersson gives a survey of the competition processes and an analysis of the winning architectural projects.
The architectural competitions illustrate two ways of meeting the needs of the aging society. One way presupposes the inclusion of apartments for the elderly in common residential building. This housing type is intended for continued living in a familiar environment, i. The other way is to design special housing for frail elderly people who are in need of care and caring around the clock, i.
This type of housing combines the deeper meaning of home with the demands on an appropriate work environment for the care staff. The fundamentally different types of architectonic solution may at best be combined, integrated in common residential areas.
The fourth and fifth contributions deal with prequalification, which is a selective procedure in competitions with a limited number of participants.
The prequalified competition is now a dominant form. The rationale of such demands may, on good grounds, be questioned in the light of the long life of buildings. A total of design teams sent in their applications in expectation. Eleven teams were invited. Obviously the battle for places in the competition was very hard.
That is a standard figure, for Sweden. Through their invitation to prequalification the organizers had access to a large number of applications from competent architectural offices with good references and a good reputation within the sector.
It is a prerequisite for being allowed to proceed in the evaluation. The professional merits of the candidates are then tested on the basis of criteria for design ability, creativity, competence and resources. It is in this evaluation that the organizer appoints the design teams selected to participate in developing solutions to the competition design task.
Judith Strong carries on the discussion by investigating selection procedures in England and their influence on the competitions tradition. She describes attempts to develop alternative procedures as a way of softening the negative effects of the prequalified competition, as well as the difficulty experienced by smaller architectural practices in getting invited, the bureaucratization through legislation and the demand for anonymity which makes the organizer hesitant regarding competitions as a form.
According to Strong the open competition has vanished, in principle, in England. But this is not just an effect of the demands for anonymity. A strongly contributing factor is privatization. No longer is there a public sector organizing open architectural competitions for new housing, hospitals, schools and buildings for municipal activities.
The new methods of selection began to be developed in England in the s. In her article Strong examines the different ways of selecting architects for commissions. Here there are dialogue-based methods that start out from simple interviews and presentations at meetings, to go on to scrutiny that may be likened to examination, short-listing of candidates based on references and analyses of competition programs for complex design tasks.
Increasingly often the competition problems call for multidisciplinary design teams. From the competition as an instrument for selection and procurement we turn our eyes to a Portuguese architect who has gained international reputation. Souto de Moura is an architect with star status operating on the international stage.
During the period Souto de Moura participated in fifty national and international architectural competitions. In fourteen of these competitions he was awarded 1st prize, and in particular in the national competitions organized in Portugal. We may watch how design evolves in the architectural projects via sketches, models and images used for reference.
The cases are analysed in terms of authenticity and reuse, readability, simplicity and clarity, as well as materiality and time. The competition proposals are used in the article as sources for understanding of his idiom. What could be a better competition design task than a school of architecture? Leentje Volker gives us an account of the competition for a new architecture school at Delft University. The background is dramatic as the school was hit by devastating fire in The directorate at once started planning for a competition for a new architecture school.
It is this design task and its web page for communication that Leentje Volker deals with in her contribution. The intention was to give young architects a chance to show their potential, inspiring them to great exploits. The competition resulted in proposals, most of which came from Europe and the US. The awarded projects were carried out by architects native of the Netherlands, France, Belgium and Finland.
Several of the awarded architects had been exchange students at Delft, apparently giving them an advance understanding of the competition task. The organizer communicated with the contestants via a website, requesting digital submission of the proposals.
This facilitated the administration of the competition process, probably also contributing to the large number of submitted projects. Through the digital submission request the competition resulted in a data base that may easily be made accessible to future research. The architecture school at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, too, has been damaged by fire and will be given new premises. The new school is planned to become one entrance to the campus.
But instead of a competition, the directorate chose in to organize a parallel assignment procedure together with the client and the Swedish Association of Architects, inviting four architectural practices, three from Sweden and one from Japan. In comparison with the process at Delft, the directorate of the Royal Institute of Technology gives an appearance of caution with its investment in safe cards and security instead of supporting a curiosity-induced search for a new school building.
With the program as their point of departure the contestants must dance with an absent client in their development of proposals as solutions to the design task. It is a logical consequence of the demand for anonymity which means a prohibition against dialogue in the design phase. The designing teams get no direct communication with the organizer and the jury. So with the competition program as their base the participant architects are forced to invent a picture of both the competition design task and the organizer.
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In such a construction the program may be read in several ways. It is both a description of the competition design task, a presentation of the conditions that apply to the competition, a source of inspiration and a challenge to the design team. In the Nordic tradition, it is the jury determining what may be seen as a minor deviation constituting a permissible change of the competition rules.
In effect the competition proposals throw an illuminating light on the competition design task. Here is a creative moment in competition processes seen to emerge only when the jury gets acquainted with the proposals; consequently it can not be predicted, neither by the organizer, nor by the jury or the individual competing teams.
To the organizer, creativity is revealed in the form of surprising solutions to a design problem. Charlotte Svensson takes us into the jury room in her contribution. Appointing a winner through a rational decision process, or alternatively, through an architectural critique method, represents two different ways of finding a winner. The jury embodies both methods. Allotting a score to an offer through measurable criteria, as a basis for a decision on procurement of services, is seen as being rational.
Quantification conveys a picture of objectivity. Whereas the architects on the jury instead seek the best overall solution through a series of evaluations based on architectural critique. The qualities of the competition proposals are tested when an architect jury member enters the visualized solutions, interpreting them from out of professional apprehension and experience. In this case, what determines the choice of a winner is a co-balancing of aspects forming a general picture.
Svensson claims that the work of the jury in competitions is a creative process that ends with the jury normally agreeing on a winner, in spite of the fact that the jury members make use of different strategies to identify quality in competitions, and that they represent different interests, parties and professions.
Evidently the wish for consensus has strong status within this tradition of competitions. Elisabeth Tostrup discusses the competition in for the Government Quarter building in Oslo, and the rebuilding of it after the terrorist bombing in Preservation of the government buildings must be combined with a deeper understanding of the competition. The jury consisted of five members, three of whom were architects.
Two of the architects were appointed by the National Association of Norwegian Architects that had also approved the competition program. The competition was open to Norwegian architects and generated 49 proposals.
The competition projects show that the architectural profession in Norway was dominated by a modernist stance that had won a hegemonic position within a short space of time. Four proposals were awarded, but the jury could not agree on a winner, and therefore it proposed a new competition.
The renewed competition was never realized due to World War II. Instead a committee was appointed in charged with the selection of a winner from among the awarded architectural projects in the competition. At the same time ideals were beginning to change. It was no longer a matter of self-evidence to create space for new buildings in a modernist idiom by tearing down buildings in the city.
A growing interest in preservation and adaptation called for a reworking of the competition proposal. It was only in that the construction of the Government Quarter could start. The last two contributions to the book, too, represent a historic context. Thomas Hoffmann-Kuhnt starts by discussing the use of historicisms in German architectural competitions on the basis of four case studies. The background for the competitions is the destruction of cities during World War II and the wishes to rebuild historically important monuments.
Common to the four cases is that the competitions have been presented in the German journal of competitions, wettbewerbe aktuell wa.
The first case concerns the reconstruction of the Berlin City Palace. After the reunification inthe Parliament decided in to announce a competition that prescribed a recreation of the Baroque facade of the building.
This was an open competition that generated proposals. The second case is the reconstruction in of Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover. The aim of the architectural competition was to recreate a museum in this place. Fifteen architectural practices were invited after prequalification.
The third case is the competition for new premises for an archive and for art exhibitions in Beeskow Castle in the city of Beeskow which is a centre for music and culture.
This competition, too, was organized in as a prequalified competition with fifteen invited participants. The fourth case is the transformation of the Moritzburg Halle in Magdeburg into a new art museum. In an architectural competition in two steps was organized to design a museum in the historic building.
The first step resulted in proposals, of which seven were taken further as invitations in the second step. HoffmannKuhnt formulates two principal conclusions after having compared the cases. First, he claims that the awarded competition proposals illustrate fundamental strategies in the design of contemporary additions in a historical context.
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According to this hypothesis the program has a steering function in competition processes. In the year the airport was given the status of a national, protected historical monument through a government decision. Ten years later the same status was given to some of the airport structures by the Stockholm county administration.MAY 5. Federico Chueca, Bill Ward & Lars Magnus Ericsson,…
Beckman describes the background planning. The future of air travel lay open, and Stockholm needed an airport. Four young architects, known internationally from work on the Stockholm exhibition inwere invited.
In the biographies of the architects the commission is described as a competition. But there is no evidence of an invited competition in the archives. Nor does the program show any references to competition rules. That, too, is surprising. The Swedish national association of architects was formed only inbut the competition rules have been operating since the beginning of the 20th century. Designing an airport for international traffic was a future oriented task which had the prerequisites of putting Stockholm on the map.
The task must have seemed to be very attractive. The competition program is a brief document of four pages lacking aesthetical ambitions. Beckman analyses the four competition proposals in a model that has two axes, where one axis moves from well-tried solutions to new ideas.
The other axis runs from rational simplicity to complex structures. According to this model, the winning architectural project is one that the jury perceives as being practical and possible to develop, using well-tried solutions.
Therefore it appears as if the jury, before an uncertain future, chooses security before the spectacular, the untested and the innovative. The modernist architecture in the winning proposal represents a kind of aesthetic rationalism of the day. The competition constitutes a source of knowledge of both width and great depth. In the competition we may therefore investigate in fruitful ways how organizers, juries and competition teams produce, communicate, visualize and evaluate images of future built environment.
It is the task of research to problematize this field of knowledge. The collated articles point to the capacity in competition culture of thinking, despite a given framework, in innovative ways, passing by habitual notions; the holy delight in competing is still a resource to be exploited. The power of architecture to form and make space for individual life targets and communal societal visions is of pressing importance for many, and stands out as a necessity for society.
Competing in the Academy and Marketplace: European Architecture Competitions in Lipstadt H. Internet Competition Rules,available at: A concise overview of the early developments of design competitions is followed by a discussion of architectural competitions as part of recognized professional practice. Finnish architects have been actively involved in shaping competition practices since the late 19th century.
The Finnish architectural competitions archive and the method by which it is compiled are described, with some statistical information.
Over time, competition rules need revisions, which are described in relation to changes in the constellation of actors in the construction sector during the past few decades. Changes in the recent operating practices of potential competition organizers have created the need to evaluate various new requirements as eventual components of design competitions.
European Union requirements for the procurement of design services by public bodies have an impact on architectural competition practices as well. Built results of architectural competitions have a greater environmental significance than their number, in proportion to annual building permits, might indicate.
Slightly under a third of them have been open competitions; i. However, the numbers have fluctuated greatly, and at first there was not even one every year. In the last ten years —there have been three to thirteen open architectural competitions a year.
The earliest reliably documented architectural competition in Finland was held in for the edifice of the Bank of Finland. This international competition was won by the German architect Ludwig Bohnstedt. Foreigners also won some of the other early competitions.
Was the professional competence of Finnish architects not on a compatible level?
Architectural Competitions - Histories and Practice by Rio Kulturkooperativ - Issuu
Formal architectural education in Finland began at the Polytechnic Institute in Finnish architects gradually gained experience and began to have success in competitions, and Finland became known as a country with its own style of architecture well before its independence in Architects soon wanted to dissociate from engineers, and in they founded a chapter of their own, Arkitektklubben.
The club started the periodical Arkitekten later Arkkitehti-Arkitekten; today Ark in These rules followed the example of the Swedish ones, and they defined both the open competition and the competition by invitation.
The majority of the jury had to be professionals in the field of building. You're waiting for an important call at the office, but you also have to attend a meeting downstairs. Instead of relying on the secretary to forward the call to you in the meeting room, the call will automatically come through on your mobile phone.
You'll never miss anything important: Corporate telecom services will undoubtedly be a very important factor for mobile service providers, and there are plenty of synergies between Raya Telecom and this sector. Promising a lot more to come in the future of telecom in the country, Abdallah says, "Together, we believe we're going to be able to change the infrastructure of telecommunications in Egypt. That is the big question as markets await the announcement of the company's financial results on Wednesday this week.
One of the fastest growing companies in Kenya, its financial performance is considered both a barometer for the the telecommunications industry in Kenya and a signal of the state of consumer spending in the country. If Safaricom announces better results, it will have graduated into the most profitable company in the land.
With a market that is growing more competitive by the day, Safaricom has kept its edge through aggressive marketing and by constantly reviewing its product range.
Recently, it has been giving subscribers extra talk time to induce them to purchase more scratch cards, allowing it to reap more revenues.
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With its market share estimated at between 65 per cent and 70 per cent - according to June figures by the market regulator, the Communications Commission of Kenya CCK - the company continues to consolidate its position by maintaining the largest number of base stations and constantly monitoring revenue and traffic volumes.
According to insiders, Nairobi continues to lead in terms of traffic volume. The company is currently thinking of a way of dealing with the 8 o'clock off peak hour traffic. The proposal, according to insiders, includes the option of introducing a new tariff for peak periods. By the end of July, Safaricom's subscriber base was 4.
But with a growth rate ofsubscribers per month, it is estimated that subscriber numbers are now in excess of 5 million. In coming months, competition is likely to be stiff. Celtel Kenya, having introduced a unified East African network, is presently working on an East African tariff plan that will enable subscribers to cross from one country to another while retaining the same number but call using the local tariffs and top up with the local currency and cards.
On the third mobile operator front, the signs are that Econet Wireless will start rolling out its services in the coming months. With CCK having given the green light to the South Africans, all that remains is for the company to clear outstanding court cases that have continued to bog it down. According to the information available to Hello! And as part of its aim to make life better for the people as well as its subscribers, Celtel has made significant progress in its community social responsibilities.
In the South West, the telecoms company has sunk boreholes in more than 13 communities till date. What'smore, the company will soon begin the donation of materials to charity homes throughout the six zones of the country.
In the meantime, Celtel is still continuing with its rebranding exercise it has embarked upon since it took over from Vmobile few months ago. To this end, Vmobile shops and dealers' outlets are being branded in the yellow and red colour of Celtel, while chairs, umbrellas, parasols etc are being distributed across the nation.
Arab News reports that the capacity on its systems in Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam has been increased, with an additional international switchboard being set up in Jeddah which will enable up to 30 million international calls to be made every hour. The company's group executive for corporate communication, Lulu Letlape, says it seeks to "deploy the fixed version of WiMax in the short- to medium-term.
Wireless technology will allow Telkom to cover those areas that do not have a fixed-line footprint. The company says it is looking at other opportunities, among which it aims to benefit from a trend towards convergence. Telkom, she says, has been converging its products and services to mobile products and services, creating fixed-mobile convergence. Letlape says Telkom is growth-centred and continues to look for new growth opportunities.
We have put a team in place to evaluate opportunities. Go to original source itweb. Some retail shareholders in Telkom on Friday openly protested against the box-ticking nature of the annual general meeting AGMdemanding greater participation in the decision-making processes at the company.
They asked to be allowed to air their views more freely and debate issues such as share buy-backs, particularly before being asked to vote on resolutions. One shareholder, Arthur Lello from Kwa-Zulu Natal - who between him and his wife speaks for 14 shares worth just over R2m - accused Telkom management of "pulling a conjuring trick" by asserting the cost of distributing dividends made it undesirable to return all excess capital via such distribution mechanism.
Lello wants Telkom to return excess capital via higher dividends instead of partially via share buy-backs. Lello's suggestion met with loud applause from the audience. Not comparing apples with apples But Telkom's chief financial officer Kaushik Patel said Lello was not comparing apples with apples, and misleading small shareholders as a result.
Lello should rather be comparing the earnings per share number - the bottom line - than the EBITDA margin, which is before interest, tax, depreciation and other costs. Patel said when Telkom saw no immediate opportunity to spend excess capital; it would rather return this to shareholders in various ways in order for them to decide how better to deploy the cash. But, due to the cost associated with paying dividends - STC and distribution costs - it would not be in the best interest of shareholders to exclude buy-backs as a mechanism for returning capital, Patel said.
In the last financial year, Telkom paid out R9 in dividends - R5 ordinary and R4 special - and spent R1. It intends spending another R2bn on buy-backs this year. All the other resolutions were also passed unanimously.
Not alone in frustration Lello said he believed other shareholders should stand up and air their views as well. The AGM, he said, should be a forum for enabling small shareholders to give their input on the company's strategy going forward, and gain a better understanding of the group and its plans for the year ahead. Lello said he didn't want things to become confrontational, but the directors, as custodians of the wealth of shareholders should help them gain a better understanding of their company: Lello was not alone in his frustration.
When the voting began, another shareholder stood up and asked what the point was of having an AGM if there was going to be no room for debate: He said - without accusing Telkom of any of these - that potential abuses could include manipulating stock options, and that buy-backs inevitably placed more of the company in the hands of the "fat cats" than the small shareholder by decreasing the pool of free float shares available.
Patel said Alachouzos was sending an inappropriate message; that the purpose of buy-backs was to take out minorities.
These shares were bought on the open market on a willing buyer, willing seller basis. The topic of debate aside, it seemed from the way the meeting played itself out that Telkom shareholders would welcome a more interactive AGM in the style of the famous Berkshire Hathaway expansive question and answer sessions presided over by Warren Buffett and business partner Charlie Munger.
Thousands and thousands of investors travel from around the world to attend these AGMs each year. Attendance at Telkom's AGM was not quite on the same scale, but shareholders nonetheless filled an impressive two ballrooms at the Sandton Convention Centre. We should allow shareholders to engage with management," Molotsane said. But in reality, these shareholders have little say.
At the end of March, 85 individuals - down from 88 the year before - owned Telkom shares. But their entire holding accounted for just 1. At last year's AGM, some of the small shareholders requested a greater understanding of how the share markets work, and so this year, Telkom held an education session from 8am until 1pm prior to the AGM.
If it goes well, it would ease concerns after the cancellation of several Russian floats over the summer and the failure of Russian fertiliser maker Uralkali's plan to list on the LSE earlier this month.
A banker close to the float said Uralkali's failure to list meant Russian companies would seek more realistic valuations. He told The Business: One of Kazakhstan's leading banks, Halyk, is also expected to soon announce a London float.
Two months earlier, it bought an equity stake in Madagascar's Madacom and in February acquired a majority in Sudan's Mobitel. It has built businesses in Algeria,Tunisia, Iraq, Pakistan and Bangladesh, though it has sold out of many of its African operations, leaving only its Zimbabwean arm. Go to original source thebusinessonline. Sub-Saharan Africa's biggest cellular operator MTN has not received any takeover approaches recently, a top executive said on Friday, shrugging off talk MTN may become a target as rich Middle Eastern firms expand on the continent.
Chief Technical Officer Karel Pienaar, a board member at the South Africa-based company, said he was not aware of any negotiations regarding a takeover of MTN, which runs networks in 23 countries in Africa and the Middle East.