Salsa music - Wikipedia
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Hernando de la Parra's archives give some of our earliest available information on Cuban music. He reported instruments including the clarinetviolin and vihuela. There were few professional musicians at the time, and fewer still of their songs survive. The piece is said to be similar to 16th- 17th- and 18th-century Spanish popular songs and dances.
Important among these are France and its colonies in the Americasand the United States. Cuban music has been immensely influential[ citation needed ] in other countries. The African beliefs and practices certainly influenced Cuba's music. Polyrhythmic percussion is an inherent part of African music, as melody is part of European music.
Also, in African tradition, percussion is always joined to song and dance, and to a particular social setting. This creolization of Cuban life has been happening for a long time, and by the 20th century, elements of African belief, music and dance were well integrated into popular and folk forms.
He encouraged continuous and diverse musical events. While many contradanzas were written for dance, from the mid-century several were written as light-classical parlor pieces for piano. The first distinguished composer in this style was Manuel Saumell —who is sometimes accordingly hailed as the father of Cuban creole musical development.
According to Helio Orovio, "After Saumell's visionary work, all that was left to do was to develop his innovations, all of which profoundly influenced the history of Cuban nationalist musical movements. Cervantes was called by Aaron Copland a "Cuban Chopin " because of his Chopinesque piano compositions. Cervantes' reputation today rests almost solely upon his famous forty-one Danzas Cubanas, which Carpentier said, " Cervantes' never-finished opera, Maledetto, is forgotten.
Non-Cubans sometimes called Cuban contradanzas "habaneras. This was later lengthened and staged under the title Seila. His numerous works spanned all genres.
Gaspar Villate — produced abundant and wide-ranging work, all centered on opera. He learned to play sixteen instruments, and lived, variously, in Cuba, Latin America and Paris.
His most famous work is La bella cubana, a habanera. Gottschalk During the middle years of the 19th century, a young American musician came to Havana: Louis Moreau Gottschalk —whose father was a Jewish businessman from London, and his mother a white creole of French Catholic background. He was a piano prodigy who had listened to the music and seen the dancing in Congo SquareNew Orleans from childhood.
His period in Cuba lasted from towith visits to Puerto Rico and Martinique squeezed in. He composed many creolized pieces, such as the habanera Bamboula, Op. These numbers made use of typical Cuban rhythmic patterns. The work used about musicians and a choir of singers plus a tumba francesa group from Santiago de Cuba. He produced another huge concert the following year, with new material. These shows probably dwarfed anything seen in the island before or since, and no doubt were unforgettable for those who attended.
There he met Caturla, at sixteen a second violin. Roldan's compositions included Overture on Cuban themesand two ballets: La Rebambaramba and El milagro de Anaquille There followed a series of Ritmicas and Poema negra and Tres toques march, rites, dance His last composition was two Piezas infantiles for piano Roldan died young, at 38, of a disfiguring facial cancer he had been an inveterate smoker. His Tres danzas cubanas for symphony orchestra was first performed in Spain in Bembe was premiered in Havana the same year.
His Obertura cubana won first prize in a national contest in Caturla was murdered at 34 by a young gambler. In he was one of the founders of the National Symphony Orchestra, which he conducted.
In he was appointed Director of the Havana School of Music. As a composer he specialized in the zarzuelaa musical theatre form, very popular up to World War II. In he co-founded a bufo company comic theatre at the Marti Theatre in Havana.
Music of Cuba - Wikipedia
It was premiered in He founded various organizations and wrote frequently on musical topics. He was a prolific composer of songs and music for stage and film. His works consisted of zarzuelaAfro-Cuban and Cuban rhythms, suites and many songs that became Latin standards. During its existence from tothe group organized numerous concerts at the Havana Lyceum in order to present their avant-garde compositions to the general public and fostered within its members the development of many future conductors, art critics, performers and professors.
From then on most musicians have kept their careers on one side of the invisible line or the other. After the Cuban Revolution ina new crop of classical musicians came onto the scene.
The most important of these is guitarist Leo Brouwerwho made significant innovations in classical guitar, and is currently the director of the Havana Symphonic Orchestra. His directorship in the early s of the Cuban Institute of Instrumental and Cinematographic Arts ICAIC was instrumental in the formation and consolidation of the nueva trova movement.
Other important composers from the early post-revolution period that began in were: Right row, top to bottom: Closely following the early post-revolution generation, a group of young composers started to attract the attention of the public that attended classical music concerts.
Most of them received a solid musical education provided by the official arts school system created by the Cuban government and graduated from the Instituto Superior de Arte ISA. All of them have emigrated and currently live and work in other countries. Electroacoustic music in Cuba[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.
Music of Cuba
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. With some guajeos, offbeats at the end of the two-side, or onbeats at the end of the three-side serve as pick-ups leading into the next measure when clave is written in two measures. This guajeo is in two-three clave because it begins on the downbeat, emphasizing the onbeat quality of the two-side.
The figure has the same exact harmonic sequence as the previous example, but rhythmically, the attack-point sequence of the two measures is reversed. When salsa uses non-Cuban rhythms, such as a Puerto Rican plena, guajeos are essential to tie that genre in with the salsa format. The third measure outlines a G7 chord. The other measures outline C. Bass tumbao[ edit ] Most salsa bass tumbaos are based on the tresillo pattern. Often the last note of the measure ponche is held over the downbeat of the next measure.
In this way, only the two offbeats of tresillo are sounded. This tumbao is clave-neutral. Some salsa tumbaos that have a specific alignment with clave.
The following bass line coincides with three of the clave's five strokes. The module begins with four ascending eighth-notes starting on the second [quarter-note of the measure]. This configuration emphasizes the. In both of the modules, these four notes move from G3 to Eb4. Although the first, third, and fourth notes G3, C4, and Eb4 are identical in both modules, the second note reflects the change in harmony. In the first module, this note is the Bb3 third of the tonic harmony; in the module repetition, the A3 is the fifth of the dominant.
Of the final five notes in the module, the first four are [offbeats]; the final D4 is on the [last quarter-note] in the second measure of the module. Along with the final D4, the initial D4 on the [last offbeat] in the first measure of the module and the Eb4 on the [offbeat] immediately preceding the final note of the module are identical in both modules. The [offbeats] in the second-module measure reflect the harmonic changes.
The first version of the module is over the dominant chord and contains the pitches A3 the fifth and C4 the seventh. A Bb3 is sounded twice on the two [offbeats] in the module's repetition and represents the third G minor tonic chord. New York had been a center of Cuban-style dance music since the s, when landmark innovations by Machito's Afro-Cubans helped usher in the mambo era.
Tito Puente worked for a time in the Afro-Cubans before starting up his own successful band. By the early s, there were three very popular mambo big bands in New York: There were many other working bands as well. The Palladium Ballroom was the epicenter of mambo in New York. At the height of its popularity, the Palladium attracted Hollywood and Broadway stars, especially on Wednesday nights, when a free dance lesson was offered. The mambo and its "temple", the Palladium, were racially and ethnically integrated phenomena.
The pachanga was popularized by Orquesta Sublime and other Cuban charangas. The pachanga was the last Cuban popular dance to take ahold in New York's Latin community. The first post-Revolution Cuban dance music genre was the short-lived, but highly influential mozambique In spite of this, members of Eddie Palmieri's Conjunto la Perfecta did hear this new music over shortwave radio, inspiring them to create a similar rhythm which they also called mozambique.
Although the two rhythms share no parts in common, the band received death threats because some right wing Cuban exiles thought Palmieri's band was playing contemporary Cuban music. By the mids, a hybrid Nuyorican cultural identity emerged, primarily Puerto Rican but influenced by many Latin cultures as well as the close contact with African Americans. It had two Top 20 hits in The term boogaloo was probably coined in about by Richie Ray and Bobby Cruz. The biggest boogaloo hit of the 60s was "Bang Bang" by the Joe Cuba Sextet, which achieved unprecedented success for Latin music in the United States in when it sold over one million copies.
Joe Bataan and the Lebron Brothers are two other important boogaloo bands. Inthe same year as Joe Cuba's pop success, the Palladium closed because it lost its liquor license. As Puente later recounted: I recorded it to keep up with the times. The late s also saw white youth joining a counterculture heavily associated with political activism, while black youth formed radical organizations like the Black Panthers.
Inspired by these movements, Latinos in New York formed the Young Lordsrejected assimilation and "made the barrio a cauldron of militant assertiveness and artistic creativity". This was followed by a series of updated son montuno and plena tunes that evolved into modern salsa by The Fania team released a string of successful singles, mostly son and plena, performing live after forming the Fania All-Stars s[ edit ] Roger Dawson hosted a very popular New York radio show featuring salsa.