Battle of Brandywine - Wikipedia
The year and date that the Battle of Brandywine took place on Thursday, The Battle of Brandywine ended in victory for the British who were able to drive. The next battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Freeman's Farm Date of the Battle of Brandywine Creek: 11th September American battery firing on British Foot Guards as the British begin their attack on General. Battle of Brandywine: A summary of the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, In the end, the British troops occupied the battlefield, but they had not.
Pennsylvania, west of Philadelphia. Combatants at the Battle of Brandywine Creek: Major-General Sir William Howe: Size of the armies at the Battle of Brandywine Creek: Around 6, British and Hessians against 8, Americans. Uniforms, arms and equipment at the Battle of Brandywine Creek: The British wore red coats, with bearskin caps for the grenadiers, tricorne hats for the battalion companies and caps for the light infantry. The Highland Scots troops wore the kilt and feather bonnet. The two regiments of light dragoons serving in America, the 16th and 17th, wore red coats and crested leather helmets.
The Hessian infantry wore blue coats and retained the Prussian style grenadier mitre cap with brass front plate.
The Americans dressed as best they could. Increasingly as the war progressed infantry regiments of the Continental Army mostly took to wearing blue uniform coats. The American militia continued in rough clothing. Soldier and Officer of the 27th Regiment of Foot: The British and German infantry carried bayonets, which were in short supply among the American troops. The Highland Scots troops carried broadswords.
Battle of Brandywine
Many men in the Pennsylvania regiments carried rifled weapons, as did other backwoodsmen. Both sides were supported by artillery. Winner of the Battle of Brandywine Creek: The British and Hessians were left occupying the battlefield, after driving the Americans from their position on Brandywine Creek.
British Regiments at the Battle of Brandywine Creek: General George Washington marched his army of American Continental Regiments and Colonial Militia south to Wilmington and attempted to delay the capture of Philadelphia, falling back before the British and Hessian army. He also says he saw Dust Rise back in the country for about an hour.
Bland included an estimate of the enemy strength—two brigades of light troops. In any event, that authentic intelligence galvanized the commander in chief into action.
Battle of Brandywine - Brandywine Battlefield Park Associates
At about 2 p. Meanwhile, Washington had once more become indecisive. Would two divisions, perhaps 3, men, be enough to stop the British? Could he trust Stirling, a make-believe earl, and Stephen, a lying braggart, both of whom were known to be fond of the bottle? Word was passed along the column to Sullivan: The British not only had flanked the rebel army, they were at hand. Orders ran back down the column: March on at the quick step, with Hazen in the lead. To his chagrin, Sullivan found his division was a half mile to the left and in front of the other rebel formations.
Sullivan spurred his horse and cantered off to confer with Stirling and Stephen and to order them to shift their men to the right to make room for his division on the hill. In command he left the year-old Frenchman Brig.
Phillipe Hubert de Prudhomme de Borre. It was 4 p. The other brigades followed a sunken lane toward the plowed hill. In a matter of moments the 1st Maryland Brigade broke. Unable to deploy in the narrow confines of the sunken lane, the 2nd Maryland Brigade, from the colonels to the drummer boys, turned on their heels and ran. At the first glimpse of the bayonets of the Brigade of Guards, de Borre disappeared. Sullivan was with Stephen and Stirling when his division fell apart.
All he could do was direct Stirling to open fire with his artillery to cover the retreat while he and four aides rode off to try to rally the fugitives. In awed silence, the Continentals watched British guns unlimber and commence a covering barrage over the heads of the Redcoats starting up the hill.
Then, when the British line drew closer, the Continentals received the order they had been waiting for: The branches riven by the artillery. The leaves falling as in autumn by the grapeshot. Above the deafening roar of cannon and musket fire came incessant shouting: Incline to the right! Incline to the left! Brigadier General William Woodford had posted one of his regiments, the 3rd Virginia under Colonel Thomas Marshall, in a wood on the right to cover his fieldpieces and flank.
Before Marshall could redeploy his men, the 3rd Virginia was attacked by the British 1st Light Infantry and forced to fall back to the Birmingham Meeting House, where they took positions behind a sturdy stone wall.
Something had to be done—and quickly. Three companies of the 2nd Light Infantry charged the 3rd Virginia and, after a brief but violent clash of bayonets against musket butts, drove them back.
Battle of Brandywine Creek
Then the retreat became panic-stricken flight. Cornwallis rode forward and joined the two battalions of British Grenadiers, who rose to their feet and charged with fixed bayonets.
Again, the Grenadiers halted and dropped to the ground. The British Grenadiers again clambered to their feet and drove forward, angling slightly to their left and engaging Brig.
Earlier in the day, while the British were forming for their attack on the plowed hill, Lord Stirling had been joined by a young volunteer from Chavaeniac, in the French province of Auvergne, Maj. The last post taken by the Jerseymen was in a wood just north of present-day Dilworth.
The Grenadiers, by then virtually out of ammunition, attacked with bayonets and drove off the rebels. As the Continentals began to fall back, the three battalions of Hessian grenadiers and the Brigade of Guards became entangled in thick woods.
Their role in the battle was over. Armstrong and his militia were to remain in place. Shortly before 5 p. Without hesitation, Greene deployed his forces—Nash to the left, Brig. George Weedon to the right. By mistake, the 1st Battalion inclined to the right. The 2nd Battalion pushed on until it was struck by heavy fire from the front and left flank. Not for the first time that day, the Grenadiers were thrown back in disorder.
Agnew detached his two left-flank regiments, the 64th and 46th Foot, and Ewald led them toward the rise. We had no sooner reached the hill, Ewald recorded in his diary, than we ran into several American regiments, which were just about to take the grenadiers in the flank and rear. The stunned British jerked to a halt as the rebels repeatedly fired at a range of 50 yards. Nearly half the men and most of the officers of both British regiments went down, but neither regiment broke.
In the gathering darkness, Virginians fired on Virginians. But most joined the growing throng trudging along the Chester Road to safety. The British, exhausted and out of ammunition, made one more brief effort before halting and then dropping back out of range of rebel artillery and muskets at 6: The battle on the right was over. Before the Hessian threw his regiments against the rebels posted on the heights on the far side of the Brandywine, he ordered his artillery to open fire.
The rebel guns answered, and for an hour and a quarter an artillery duel went on, filling the valley with smoke. A sergeant of the 4th recalled that creek was much stained with blood.
The gunners fled, led by their commander, Captain Hercules Courteney, who would later be court-martialed. As he watched the British coming steadily forward and the men of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Artillery scampering to the rear, Wayne ordered the 1st Pennsylvania under Colonel James Chambers to get the guns underway. Pennsylvanians and British met, and amid a raging firefight at 30 yards, the Continentals dragged off a howitzer and two field guns.
The two remaining guns had to be left to the British.
The duel for the guns bought Wayne just enough time to form his division in a strong position behind a stone wall covering the road to Chester.
The British advanced rapidly against the Pennsylvanians and were met with volley fire and grapeshot. More and more British troops crossed the ford and joined the battle line, until even the fiery Wayne had no choice but retreat. A soldier of the 3rd Philadelphia Associators remembered: Our way was over the dead and dying, and I saw many bodies crushed to pieces beneath the wagons, and we were bespattered with blood. As we marched directly under the English cannon, which kept up a continual fire, the destruction of our men was very great.
Once the militia were shepherded safely along the road to Chester, Wayne and Knyphausen, as if by mutual consent, broke off the action. It was 7 p. The Battle of the Brandywine was over. As Major Joseph Bloomfield of the New Jersey Line wrote in his diary, it certainly had been an unfortunate day for our army.