To date known only from the type specimens, taken in montane forest on Volcan Cacao and from a single Heredia, Perto Viejo: Finca La Selva, 40m. Main · Videos; Roba da ricchi online dating rebels of the neon god online dating · difference between dating white man black fighting · la tacha azul online . Main · Videos; Real models only dating la tacha azul online dating · timber app dating agency · dating in the vicinity · comprar nata ermol online dating · dating.
Parque Nacional Guanacaste, Inventario de Biodiversidad. Refers to the blunt shape of the tip of the male cerci. Most readily recognized by the shape and pattterning of the male supra-anal plate Fig.
The shape of the margin of the female subgenital plate Fig. The fastigium, in dorsal view, is longer and its apices more pointed than in the other species Fig. The male holotype lacks both hind legs, any possibly characteristic coloration of the femur and tibia is therefore unknown. In view of the paucity of specimens, the internal genitalia have not been dissected. Dimensions, see Table 1. Their capture in malaise traps indicates that neither sex can be exclusively arboreal in its habits.
Braulio-Carrillo, Estacion Magsasay, Sarapiqui. July 15, Garballo, G. Finca La Selva, 40m. June 13, H.
September 16, F.
Journal of Orthoptera Research
This specimen consists only of a detached hind leg, found on a leaf in forest understorey, but the identification seems certain. Refers to the narrow tapering shape of the tip of the male cerci. The main distinguishing features are given in the key above. Most readily recognized by the shape and patterning of the male supra-anal plate with a wide lingulate terminal process Fig.
Internal face of hind tibia, proximally light green, distally shiny black. Internal face of hind femur, pale green or whitish, with two prominent transverse bands in dark green in a 4th instar male larva the proximal inner face of the femur is dark blue and there is single black transverse band distally.
Parker's specimens were taken from light traps. A 4th instar male larva was taken by the present author on the trunk of an Inga tree near Puerto Viejo, and in captivity ate Inga leaves. However, the male paratype 1, from the same locality, refused this food.
This larva was a mottled light gray in color, closely matching its bark substrate, with none of the characteristic blotched green patterning of the adult male. This suggests that the larvae may be capable of background homochromy, as is commonly the case in some Acridid subfamilies, e. For a color version, see Plate 4.
Bruner added T. As the type of the latter is lost, the question is insoluble, but given that it came from New Guinea, it seems highly improbable. Hebard described T. Descamps and Amedegnato gathered together these older species and a number of newly collected forms from Colombia, together with Gerstaecker's Ommatolampis pugnax and O.
Descamps latersplit the species ofMegacephalacris again, erecting the genus Megacheilacris to accommodate three of its former species. Since then only one further species, the Costa Rican T. The majority of these are Colombian or Ecuadorian, but of these T. Here I describe 2 new species of Taeniphora from Eastern and Central Panama, and the previously undescribed male of T. The genus is homogenous, the species differing mainly in size and coloration; genital differences are almost imperceptible.
All species are small, brachypterous, usually brightly colored with longitudinally striped tegmina, with large protuberant eyes, a very narrowinterocular space, and long filiform antennae. The male terminalia are characteristic; the supra-anal plate is triangular, wide and lobate, bearing 2 or more small black processes on its anterior surface; the cerci are laterally flattened, bilobate at the tip, the upper fork forming a thin vertical fin, the lower incurved and thickened, often with a subcylindrical form, sometimes in contrast forming a sharp hook; the apex of the subgenital plate is divided, forming two small triangular lobes.
The most basal tarsal joint of the hind foot is usually shorter than the other two. The typical habitat is forest edge or light gaps within forest, where they feed on forbs, shrubs or vines; at least T. Dorsal view, showing melanic ornamentation on the SAP, and forked cerci. Male cercus, lateral to axial views. Of these, 2 males and 3 females were taken in a Malaise trap, and subsequently pinned from alcohol; they are discolored.
Antennae filiform, much longer than head and PN together. Fastigium downward sloping, truncate in dorsal view, merging smoothly with the frontal ridge. Frontal ridge smooth, nonsulcate, obsolete below median ocellus. Lateral carinae of face obsolete. Eyes large, protuberant, interocular space very narrow, less than width of antenal flagellum. Pronotum devoid of lateral and medial carina.
Disc crossed by 4 deep sulci, the most anterior being interrupted in the midline. Metazona much shorter than prozona. Anterior margin of pronotal disc bisinuate, slightly overhanging occiput. Posterior margin extremely obtuse angulate, almost truncated, with a slightly thickened margin. Integument of pronotum mostly smooth, but punctate in metazonal disc and along ventral margin of lateral lobes.
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Prosternai process large, bluntly pyramidal, with a very small acute point on its posterior face, inclined backwards. Tegmina short, reaching to posterior margin of 4th abdominal segment, overlapping dorsally. Wings reduced, cycloid, greyish, infumate along their anterior edge and around their margins, with very coarse cross venation. Pro- and mesothoracic femora robust, but unarmed, completely lacking the dorsal spines characteristic of many species of the genus. Prothoracic tibia with 5 external and 6 internal spines, mesothoracic tibia with 5 external and 4 internal spines.
Hind femora robust, equalling or exceeding the tip of the abdomen in length. Dorsal medial carina of hind femur slighty rugose, ends on knee in a small spine. Outer face of hind femur with prominent raised chevron ridges, corresponding to the extensor muscle attachments.
Hind tibia with 8 external and 8 internal spines, including the apical ones. Hind tarsal segments subequal, the distal being the longest, foot formula Male supra-anal plate with a medial longitudinal depression proximally and a blunt rectangular tip. It is ornamented with two large melanised bosses near the tip, and with smaller melanised points basally Fig 7B.
Larger than the male see Table 2 but closely similar in structure. The upper valves of the ovipositor are noticeably indented near their tip, forming a prominent shoulder in dorsal view. Labrum tinged red, palps and sides of mandibles green. Fastigium and dorsal parts of frontal ridge probably red in life, at least in females. Antennae light brown, darkening distally, but with a whitish extreme tip. Pronotum black, longitudinally striped with four light blue-green stripes.
All of which basically provided inventories of the macroalgae species found in their digestive tracts. Concerning the diatom component in the diet of abalone, even aftermost studies consisted mainly of in vitro observations on early abalone juveniles or their post-larvae. Soon after, the first comprehensive inventories of diatoms available for abalone feeding in the wild became published Siqueiros-Beltrones et al.
Actual observations of the in situ feeding of young abalone on diatoms provided detailed species identifications Siqueiros-Beltrones et al. Concerning adult abalone, it has been strongly accepted for decades that their diet is based solely on macroalgae, particularlly on Macrocystis pyrifera for this region. However, the potential importance of diatoms in the diet of adult abalone has been recently proposed Siqueiros-BeltronesSiqueiros-Beltrones et al.
Allegedly, these would provide important nutritional elements to the adult abalone, either complementary or essential. Notwithstanding the need for carrying out chemical analyses of said nutritional elements, it is first necessary to determine the association structure of those epiphytic diatoms that are actually forming part of the in situ diet of adult abalone Haliotis spp.
The objective was to determine the species relative abundances and the species diversity of the diatoms identified in the gut contents of adult specimens of Haliotis fulgens Philippi, and Haliotis corrugata Wood, in their natural habitat. The observations on the diatom based diet of healthy specimens of these abalone species and their time variations were referenced with measurements depicting their physical condition throughout a year, as well as with the characteristics related to their reproductive changes as seen in the hepato-gonadic index.
Our hypothesis H0 stated that no difference would be found in the structure of diatom assemblages represented in the gut contents of H. However, because a change in feeding habits may occur during the onset of the WS, similar observations were carried out in sick specimens, both for their gut contents as well as for their physical and reproductive condition, in order to record any anomaly in their diet that may be related to this disease.
In this case our null hypothesis read that the diatom assemblages in the gut contents of specimens affected with WS would be similar to those described for healthy specimens.
Around 30 specimens of Haliotis fulgens and 30 of H. Size and weight of the specimens varied between 90 mm and mm and from 90 to g, respectively. Additionally, 20 specimens 18 H. Location of the abalone site La Bocana in the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, where specimens of Haliotis fulgens and H. Sampling dates, number of specimens, and average size of examined adult Haliotis fulgens Hf and H.
The condition index provides a general view of the specimen's physical condition; taking the mean value as reference, higher values indicate that the organisms are in good health whilst low values indicate loss of weight, inasmuch it is calculated by dividing the fresh weight less the shell of the organism between its total weight, and expressed as a percentage. Diatom samples For determining the diatom based diet of adult Haliotis fulgens and H.
From these, samples of gut contents were taken from only specimens; 11 of these were affected by WS Table 1. Guts were extracted, longitudinally opened with a scalpel and their contents retrieved using a 5 ml plastic pippet.
Specimens from the same species collected in a same date represented a single compound sample, i. To identify diatoms 5 sub-samples or repetitions were separated from the base sample and each one was deposited in a test tube.
Then the organic matter from the samples was oxidized using a mixture of nitric acid and commercial alcohol at an initial proportion of 1: To estimate the relative abundances RA of the diatom taxa valves were counted n in a slide representing a sample. Based on said RA species were classified as: Also, similarity between the samples was measured with Jaccard's index which considers only presence-absence of species, and with the Bray-Curtis index which considers both presence-absence of taxa and their RA Brower et al.
RESULTS The values of the hepato-gonadic index in both abalone species showed the same pattern, a pronounced peak in August-September which depicts both populations reproductive season, followed by a steep decrease in October which reflects spawning events Fig. Values are lower for H. Much lower values were measured for specimens with WS indicating a diminished development of the hepato-gonadic gland as a symptom of the disease. Albeit a similar pattern as in healthy specimens was apparent.
A The hepato-gonadic index values in both abalone species show the same pattern: Condition index values B show that in H. Apparently, values were lower for H.
A pronounced peak in is also observed in May-September for H. Sick specimens however, showed much lower values compared to those of healthy H. This makes evident the WS symptoms inasmuch there is a loss of weight and a decrease in weight and size of the callus. However, the specimens collected in April showed higher values than those from previous dates, coinciding with that observed in healthy specimens.
Gut content samples of healthy specimens of H.
Other samples that yielded quantifiable preparations had low number of diatoms albeit this was observed both for healthy and sick specimens. Absence of diatoms in the guts was observed both in healthy and sick abalone. In the latter, this occurred in specimens from April, which showed peaks in the condition and hepato-gonadic indices Fig. Diatom species richness S in the gut contents appears higher for the Haliotis fulgens suggesting a wider trophic spectrum, whilst in Haliotis corrugata S is similar to that of the sick specimens, most of which are of the same species.
Structure of the diatom assemblages In accordance with our hypothesis, the diatom taxocenosis gathered from the gut contents of H.
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Diatom taxa 24 representing The abundance of this diatom species and of C. In contrast, Rhoicosphenia genuflexa showed an abundance peak in the H. But in general, the RA of the diatom taxa in every sample date were characterized by few abundant taxa and many rare or uncommon species. And, as with the RA the measured values throughout the sampling period Fig.
Thus, these are considered to be accurately represented in the analyzed gut contents, while indicating that the available diatom flora in the abalone environment is highly diverse. Also, in agreement with our hypothesis no difference is apparent in the structure of diatom assemblages represented in the gut contents of H.
Estimated values of the indices that describe the structure of diatom assemblages represented in the gut contents of Haliotis fulgens Hf and H. This comprises also the gut content samples from specimens with WS, and although the April sample of sick H. Likewise, this agrees with the outcome of the Bray-Curtis index Fig.
The high relative abundances of certain diatom taxa from the specimens with WS Table 4 do not suggest any other type of relation. Similarity between diatom samples in the gut contents of Haliotis fulgens and H. Similitud entre muestras de contenidos intestinales de Haliotis fulgens y H.
Similitud entre muestras de diatomeas de contenidos intestinales de Haliotis fulgens y H. However, such constancy strongly suggests that adult abalone feed non-selectively on the epiphytic diatoms available in situ as juveniles do Siqueiros-Beltrones et al.