Children's literature - Wikipedia
Web site of award-winning science fiction and fantasy poet and writer Kij Johnson. Books blog. Please check it out at Writing women into The Wind in the Willows revitalises the canon | Books | The Guardian. 9/12/ It's sort of for kids, sort of for grownups, and I hope you like it. 9/26 Writers Voice interview air date. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children. .. as well as words to tell the story, incorporating coloured illustration with text, page for page. .. Longer chapter books, appropriate for children ages 9– DATE RECEIVED PATIENT NAME—I.D. PHONE AGE SEX 4/12/XX 4/11/XX Judith PHOS LD AST (SGOT) ALT (SGPT) GGT mg/dL MF–– – UPTAKE T3 25–35% T4 TOTAL TRIGLYCERIDES –12 FTI (T3UT4) FREE.
The book was child—sized with a brightly colored cover that appealed to children—something new in the publishing industry. Known as gift books, these early books became the precursors to the toy books popular in the 19th century. According to the journal The Lion and the Unicorn"Newbery's genius was in developing the fairly new product category, children's books, through his frequent advertisements He published his own books as well as those by authors such as Samuel Johnson and Oliver Goldsmith ; : Another philosopher who influenced the development of children's literature was Jean-Jacques Rousseauwho argued that children should be allowed to develop naturally and joyously.
His idea of appealing to a children's natural interests took hold among writers for children. The History of Harry and Lucy urged children to teach themselves. Its founder, Johann Bernhard Basedowauthored Elementarwerk as a popular textbook for children that included many illustrations by Daniel Chodowiecki.
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Another follower, Joachim Heinrich Campecreated an adaptation of Robinson Crusoe that went into over printings. He became Germany's "outstanding and most modern" : This dislike of non-traditional stories continued there until the beginning of the next century. As professors, they had a scholarly interest in the stories, striving to preserve them and their variations accurately, recording their sources. By compiling these stories, they preserved Norway's literary heritage and helped create the Norwegian written language.
The book became popular across Europe after it was translated into French by Isabelle de Montolieu. Golden age[ edit ] The shift to a modern genre of children's literature occurred in the midth century; didacticism of a previous age began to make way for more humorous, child-oriented books, more attuned to the child's imagination.
The availability of children's literature greatly increased as well, as paper and printing became widely available and affordable, the population grew and literacy rates improved.
Regarded as the first "English masterpiece written for children" : InCarlo Collodi wrote the first Italian fantasy novel, The Adventures of Pinocchiowhich was translated many times. In that same year, Emilio Salgarithe man who would become "the adventure writer par excellence for the young in Italy"  first published his legendary character Sandokan.
Barrie told the story of Peter Pan in the novel Peter and Wendy in Johanna Spyri 's two-part novel Heidi was published in Switzerland in and Boys' book writer Oliver Optic published over books. Inthe "epoch-making book" : This " coming of age " story established the genre of realistic family books in the United States.
Western science, technology, and literature became fashionable. China's first modern publishing firm, Commercial Pressestablished several children's magazines, which included Youth Magazine, and Educational Pictures for Children.
Yuxiu encouraged novelist Shen Dehong to write for children as well. Dehong went on to rewrite 28 stories based on classical Chinese literature specifically for children.
Many children's writers were denounced, but Tianyi and Ye Shengtao continued to write for children and created works that aligned with Maoist ideology. The final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading.
E-book - Wikipedia
However, this work is sometimes omitted; perhaps because the digitized text was a means for studying written texts and developing linguistic concordances, rather than as a published edition in its own right.
All these systems also provided extensive hyperlinkinggraphics, and other capabilities. Van Dam is generally thought to have coined the term "electronic book",   and it was established enough to use in an article title by Thus in the Preface to Person and Object he writes "The book would not have been completed without the epoch-making File Retrieval and Editing System Hart [ edit ] Despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S.
Hart as the inventor of the e-book. Seeking a worthy use of this resource, he created his first electronic document by typing the United States Declaration of Independence into a computer in plain text.
Early implementations[ edit ] After Hart first adapted the Declaration of Independence into an electronic document inProject Gutenberg was launched to create electronic copies of more texts - especially books.
Detailed specifications were completed in FY 82, and prototype development began with Texas Instruments that same year. Four prototypes were produced and delivered for testing in Tests were completed in Harkins and Stephen H. InSony launched the Data Discmanan electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on CDs.An Older Boy Took Advantage Of Me
One of the electronic publications that could be played on the Data Discman was called The Library of the Future. The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware, manufacturing techniques, and other subjects. Comparison of e-book formats Reading an e-book on public transit As e-book formats emerged and proliferated,[ citation needed ] some garnered support from major software companies, such as Adobe with its PDF format that was introduced in Different e-reader devices followed different formats, most of them accepting books in only one or a few formats, thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more.
Due to the exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books. In the late s, a consortium formed to develop the Open eBook format as a way for authors and publishers to provide a single source-document which many book-reading software and hardware platforms could handle. Focused on portability, Open eBook as defined required subsets of XHTML and CSS ; a set of multimedia formats others could be used, but there must also be a fallback in one of the required formatsand an XML schema for a "manifest", to list the components of a given e-book, identify a table of contents, cover art, and so on.
Google Books has converted many public domain works to this open format. Unofficial and occasionally unauthorized catalogs of books became available on the web, and sites devoted to e-books began disseminating information about e-books to the public. Consumer e-book publishing market are controlled by the "Big Five".
The "Big Five" publishers include: Inlibraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an E-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries.
In earlyNLM started PubMed Centralwhich provides full-text e-book versions of many medical journal articles and books, through cooperation with scholars and publishers in the field. Pubmed Central now provides archiving and access to over 4.
However, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of electronic publishingciting issues with user demand, copyright piracy and challenges with proprietary devices and systems. This survey found significant barriers to conducting interlibrary loan for e-books. This means the library does not own the electronic text but that they can circulate it either for a certain period of time or for a certain number of check outs, or both. When a library purchases an e-book license, the cost is at least three times what it would be for a personal consumer.