Considerations on the trade and finances of this kingdom, and on the measures of administration, with respect to those great Publication date Attributed to Thomas Whately--National Union Catalog pre imprints. Thomas Whatley's Observations on Modern Gardening () is the first In these instances the ground is the principal consideration: but previous to any. Considerations on the Trade and Finances of this Kingdom, and on the Measures of Administration by Thomas Whately. Publication date Attributed to Thomas Whately--National Union Catalog pre imprints.
The Post-Office has indeed been called a meer Convenience; which therefore the People always cheerfully pay for.
Thomas Whately - Wikipedia
After what has been said, this Observation requires very little Notice; I will not call the Protection and Security of the Colonies, to which the Duties in question are applied, by so low a Name as a Convenience.
The instances that have been mentioned prove, that the Right of the Parliament of Great Britain to impose Taxes of every Kind on the Colonies, has been always admitted; but were there no Precendents to support the Claim, it would still be incontestable, being founded on the Principles of our Constitution; for the Fact is, that the Inhabitants of the Colonies are represented in Parliament: The Merchants of London, a numerous and respectable Body of Men, whose Opulence exceeds all that America could collect; the Proprietors of that vast Accumulation of Wealth, the public Funds; the Inhabitants of Leeds, of Halifax, of Birmingham, and of Manchester, Towns that are each of them larger than the Largest in the Plantations; many of less Note that are yet incorporated; and that great Corporation the East India Company, whose Rights over the Countries they possess, fall little short of Sovereignty, and whose Trade and whose Fleets are sufficient to constitute them a maritime Power, are all in the same Circumstances; none of them chuse their Representatives; and yet are they not represented in Parliament?
Is their vast Property subject to Taxes without their Consent? Are they all arbitrarily bound by Laws to which they have not agreed?
The Colonies are in exactly the same Situation: All British Subjects are really in the same; none are actually, all are virtually represented in Parliament; for every Member of Parliament sits in the House, not as Representative of his own Constituents, but as one of that august Assembly by which the Commons of Great Britain are represented.
Their Rights and their Interests, however his own Borough may be affected by general Dispositions, ought to be the great Objects of his Attention, and the only Rules for his Conduct; and sacrifice these to a partial Advantage in favour of the Place where he was chosen, would be a Departure from his Duty: The Inhabitants of the Colonies however have by some been supposed to be excepted, because they are represented in their respective Assemblies.
So are the Citizens of London in their Common Council; and yet so far from excluding them from the national Representation, it does not impeach their Right to chuse Members of Parliament: The Subjects of a By-law and of an Act of Parliament may possibly be the same; yet it never was imagined that the Privileges of London were incompatible with the Authority of Parliament; and indeed what Contradiction, what Absurdity, does a double Representation imply?
What difficulty is there in allowing both, tho' both should even be vested with equal legislative Powers, if the one is to be exercised for local, and the other for general Purposes? It would be a singular Objection to a Man's Vote for a Member of Parliament, that being represented in a provincial, he cannot be represented in a national Assembly; and if this is not sufficient Ground for an Objection, neither is it for an Exemption, or for any Pretence of an Exclusion.
The comprehending them also, both in a provincial and national Representation, is not necessarily attended with any Inconsistency, and nothing contained in their Grants can establish one; for all who took those Grants were British Subjects, inhabiting British Dominions, and who at the Time of taking, were indisputably under the Authority of Parliament; no other Power can abridge that Authority, or dispense with the Obedience that is due to it: And after all, does any Friend to the Colonies desire the Exemption?Clayton Thomas
We value the Right of being represented in the national Legislature as the dearest Privilege we enjoy; how justly would the Colonies complain, if they alone were deprived of it? They acknowledge Dependence upon their Mother Country; but that Dependence would be Slavery not Connection, if they bore no Part in the Government of the whole: Happily for them, this is not their Condition.
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If there really were any Inconsistency between a national and a provincial Legislature, the Consequence would be the Abolition of the latter; for the Advantages that attend it are purely local: But so far are they from being incompatible, that they will be seldom found to interfere with one another: The Parliament will not often have occasion to exercise its Power over the Colonies except for those Purposes, which the Assemblies cannot provide for.
A general Tax is of this Kind; the Necessity for it, the Extent, the Application of it, are Matters which Councils limited in their Views and in their Operations cannot properly judge of; and when therefore the national Council determine these Particulars, it does not pretend to, never claimed, or wished, nor can ever be vested with: The latter remains in exactly the same State as it was before, providing for the same Services, by the same Means, and on the same Subjects; but conscious of its own Inability to answer greater Purposes than those for which it was instituted, it leaves the care of more general Concerns to that higher Legislature, in whose Province alone the Direction of them always was, is, and will be.
The Exertion of that Authority which belongs to its universal superintendance, neither lowers the Dignity, nor deprecates the Usefulness of more limited Powers: They retain all that they ever had, and are really incapable of more.
The Concurrence therefore of the provincial Representatives cannot be necessary in great public Measures to which none but the national Representatives are equal: The Parliament of Great Britain not only may but must tax the Colonies, when the public Occasions require a Revenue there: The present Circumstances of the Nation require one now; and a Stamp Act, of which we have had so long an Experience in this, and which is not unknown in that Country, seems an eligible Mode of Taxation.
From all these Considerations, and from many others which will occur upon Reflexion and need not be suggested, it must appear proper to charge certain Stamp Duties in the Plantations to be applied towards defraying the necessary Expences of defending, protecting, and securing the British Colonies and Plantations in America.
Close on the heels of George Mason 's Essay on Design in Gardening, Whately's Observations provide the most comprehensive work on the theory and practice of English landscape gardening in the naturalistic taste before Horace Walpole 's brief Essay on Modern Gardening and the writings of Humphry Repton.
The picturesque landscape style in the manner of idealized landscapes by Salvator Rosa or Claude Lorrainhad been pioneered by Charles Bridgeman in the s, improved by William Kent and eventually dominated by Lancelot "Capability" Brownbut neither had put their thoughts into print. Bypolymath Thomas Jeffersonthe future third President of the United Statesalready had a copy of Whately's book in his library at Monticello.
Concerning the Colonies and the Taxes imposed upon them
Eager to explore and gain practical knowledge for his own garden designs, in AprilJefferson set out for a tour of English gardens in the company of his close friend and future second President of the USA, John Adams. Memorandums made on a tour to some of the gardens in England described by Whateley in his book on gardening.
While his descriptions in point of style are models of perfect elegance and classical correctness, they are as remarkeable for their exactness. I always walked over the gardens with his book in my hand, examined with attention the particular spots he described, found them so justly characterised by him as to be easily recognised, and saw with wonder, that his fine imagination had never been able to seduce him from the truth.
Translations in German and French appeared as early as Remarks on Some of the Characters in Shakespeare[ edit ] Whately's Remarks on Some of the Characters in Shakespeare was left unfinished at his death and published posthumously by his brother, the Rev.
Joseph Whately, in