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Women in Senegal have a traditional social status as shaped by local custom and religion. According to survey, the female genital mutilation prevalence . This isn't a problem for Japanese men who usually will arrange a date at a very cheap cafe and .. I think your analysis on dating culture in Japan and the US is. Senegalese culture dictates that you should lower your gaze when talking with older people. People . This may jeopardise your relationship with your contact.
Concerning deadlines, everything hinges on the circumstances and the nature of the project. In Canada, deadlines are more uncompromising. For Senegalese, the way you dress is very important. You should be well dressed, and have an immaculate and well-groomed appearance; otherwise you run the risk of being seen as unkempt.
People will appreciate the way you look and I would even say that they will respect you more if you take care of your appearance. Regarding language, you can address colleagues by the informal form of "you" "tu" in French although it is best to wait until the other person does so since you are the guest.
Also use this formal manner of speech when speaking to superiors and call them by Mr. It is always best to be on time; after a while you will realize what is acceptable in your workplace. You will quickly find out that there are many legitimate and genuine reasons for being late: It is quite possible that you might take a day off to go to a wedding, baptism, funeral, or simply because you are ill. Rain and the inconveniences that it causes may be another reason to not go to work.
North Americans find that deadlines are generally "too" flexible for their liking. How will I know how my staff view me?
Qualities that are most highly regarded in a boss include: Avoid humiliating colleagues or employees as this behaviour is not easily forgiven. In Senegal, degrees are highly regarded and the Canadian ideal of the "self-made man" does not carry the same weight if he does not have the appropriate education.
In any case, it is necessary to have an open mind to assist you in adapting to the new and different situations in which you may find yourself. Behaviours that offend people include drinking alcohol when people are praying, kissing your spouse in front of others, etc. If you are in a position of authority, being too friendly with the people with whom you work could create a more lax environment than you had intended, although this may not be immediately apparent.
Cultural Information - Hierarchy and Decision-making Question: In the workplace, how are decisions taken and by whom? Is it acceptable to go to my immediate supervisor for answers or feedback? Some supervisors are very open-minded and understand that others can come up with good ideas.
As a Canadian, your comments and knowledge are highly appreciated since people believe that this is what made Canada the successfully developed country that it is. Given the importance of hierarchy, decisions are normally made by those at the top and others do not necessarily have much of an influence.
Your ideas will be welcomed, provided you are there to generate new ideas and people are counting on you to provide some inspiration. However, never forget to express your thoughts in such a manner that people do not think that you want to impose your ideas. By asking "What would you think if we did something this way", people will be happy to give their opinions and talk about it.
If you are not there to play this kind of role, it is best to accept the decisions that are made and be very diplomatic should you want to voice your point of view. Gender, Class, Religion and Ethnicity. What impact would the above attitudes have on the workplace? People do not think about gender equality in the same way. The slave status that has been attributed to the submissive African woman must be put into perspective. In Africa, it was customary to divide responsibilities; it was up to the man to feed and clothe his family.
Today, however, women support the family financially. Therefore, it is obvious that the division of labour is changing even though Africans are not talking about gender equality. Moreover, he was not from the largest ethnic group in the country. At the same time, people do not react favourably when you criticize their religion.
Contrary to popular belief, social class is not a very important factor. This is not to say that the rich and poor are treated equally. Rather, what I am talking about is caste, which is actually more important than social class.
Take into consideration, however, that things have changed in modern times and that, in modern-day Africa ethnicity, religious affiliation, etc. There is a tendency to blame all conflicts in Africa on questions of ethnicity. This is not the case in Senegal. Ethnicity rarely comes into question; this does not mean that it does not play a role in certain situations, namely the Casamance area.
Rather, I would say that economic factors play a far more important role. In the workplace, managers often allow a little prayer area, but this does not usually cause any problems with people of different faiths. Senegal is ahead of many other African countries in this area. For example, in the home there are certain domestic tasks e.
Moreover, men are considered to be providers who will take care of their wives and children. Nonetheless, women work, drive cars, and run businesses that they have created. The cooperatives became the basic sources from which farmers could obtain seeds, tools, credit, and marketing facilities for their crops.
Agricultural and manufactured products are sold, including foodstuffs and household goods.
The informal sector provides inexpensive goods and services for the urban poor who cannot afford to buy the goods produced by the formal industrial sector. There is an enormous market for cheap used clothing, which often is smuggled into the country and permits families to clothe their children at a relatively low cost.
Industrial output is determined largely by agricultural performance. Most major manufacturing is located in and around Dakar. Food processing is the largest activity, accounting for 43 percent of industrial production. Groundnut extraction is the major agricultural industry. Other industrial production includes fishing, phosphate mining, chemicals and oil, metal and mechanical industries, and the construction material and paper industries.
In terms of light industry, the craft sector is very active.
It includes handmade textiles; gold, silver, and iron smithing; pottery making; woodworking; basketry; leatherworking; and other traditional crafts.
Peanuts, phosphates, cotton, and fish and fishing products are exported. Fishing products, mostly canned tuna, provide direct and indirect employment for more thanpeople. As part of its diversification policy, Senegal became one of the first African countries to develop tourism as a major national economic activity. However, tourism suffered a major blow from the Casamance insurgency and the conflict with Mauritania.
Cash crops include rice, cowpeas, maize, sugar, and livestock. Cement, refined sugar, fertilizers, and tobacco products are exported to neighboring countries. In the past, division of labor was practiced in farming. Before the rainy season, young men did the hard work of clearing the bush and preparing the land for sowing.
Once it rained and the seeds began to sprout, women and children weeded. The constitution bans child labor, but instead of attending school, many children work in the family's fields. Social Stratification Classes and Castes.
The society historically was organized into a hierarchy of castes, a rigid structure in which descendants of royal lines and nobles ruled over artisan castes and slaves. After independence, a new set of status criteria emerged. New means for achieving wealth, power, and status were introduced through the market economy and the development of the educational system.
The modern elite includes successful businessmen, managers and professionals in the private sector as well as influential politicians, and highly educated individuals. The deterioration of living conditions has affected the life of the masses. Lepers, polio victims, and beggars are a common sight in the cities.
View of Dakar's Independence Square. Many rural lands are still owned by city dwellers. Symbols of Social Stratification. During the colonial era, nearly all the profits generated by the largest firms went to foreigners and the local nobility. The nationalization programs led by the government after independence favored a small number of citizens who entered into a new competition for status and power.
The clans included successful businessmen, highly educated or politically well-connected individuals who were able to afford European-style living standards, including cars, modern appliances, luxurious villas or apartments, good schools, higher education for their children, and travel abroad.
Investments in real estate, commerce, and agriculture were signs of achievement. In the rural hinterlands of the Cap Vert region, city dwellers own as much as 70 percent of the land.
Jardiniers du Dimancheor "Sunday farmers" have invested in truck farms, orchards, and cattle-fattening operations, using loans from state-run banks. Corruption has contributed to the growing gap between the elite and the masses who are struggling to survive. Senegal is a moderately decentralized republic dominated by a strong presidency.
The president is elected by popular vote for a seven-year term and appoints a prime minister. The constitution provides for a civilian government composed of a dominant executive branch, a National Assembly, and an independent judiciary.
A second legislative chamber, the Senate, was established in Leadership and Political Officials. Called the "Poet President," Senghor was elected in Inspired by the romantic vision of Africa of Harlem Renaissance authors and European ethnographers, Senghor exalted African culture.
Cultural Information - Senegal | Centre for Intercultural Learning
During his reign, the arts were well funded; he organized the Festival of Negro Arts in Dakar in Although a practicing Roman Catholic, Senghor developed strong ties with the Muslim brotherhoods, who supported him. Some Senegalese respected and revered him as the "Father of the Nation" even though they did not share his political views. Senghor's political legacy was mixed. He provided the nation with a level of peace, political stability, tolerance, and freedom of expression that was rare in Africa.
Unlike most African leaders, he knew when and how to give up power. However, by establishing a de facto one-party system, he contributed to the decline of his party's dynamism and thwarted the development of an opposition that could openly challenge national policies that had failed to stem economic decline.
President Abdou Diouf, who held office from towas a handpicked successor who peacefully stepped down after two decades in power. In a presidential election held in the yearthe forty-year dominance of the Socialist Party and Diouf's nineteen-year reign ended.
In a second round of elections, he was defeated by Abdoulaye Wade, the leader of the main opposition party, the Senegalese Democratic Party. Social Problems and Control. In the s, Senegal, which had been largely free of ethnic, racial, and religious strife, began to experience those problems. Anti-Moor rioting and the mass exodus of Moors inthe insurrection of separatist rebels, the fundamentalist Islamists who have emerged to challenge the brotherhoods' religious authority and the legitimacy of the secular state, and students' unrest and frustration at the lack of employment opportunities after graduation are signs of a more turbulent and less tolerant society.
Theft occurs frequently, and most of the time people beat the criminal before the police arrive; on many occasions, vigilante groups and mobs have tried to lynch suspected thieves. Civilians have no access to guns, which are used mostly by the military and the police. In urban areas, alcoholism and drug use mostly cannabis have become a major issue.
The army has demonstrated a firm commitment to civilian rule and loyalty to the regime in power. Diouf continued Senghor's policy of building up the army and using it as an instrument of foreign policy. The army was used to put down the insurgency in the Casamance and ensure peace and order on the borders with Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau in the late s and early s.
The military forces number about fifteen thousand and are among the best trained in Africa. Two decades of structural adjustment programs have reduced government spending in all public sector activities, including social services. Urban and rural dwellers have adopted creative survival strategies, that have helped them cope with difficult times.
Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations In difficult economic times, individuals and communities increasingly rely on social ties to create solidarity networks.
These ties include family, friends, ethnic groups, neighborhood associations, religious brotherhoods, and hometown networks. Village-based parent student associations have played an important role in financing school construction and providing school supplies and materials in rural areas. Village health committees have been organized to build maternity and village health centers and manage the distribution of medicines. In the countryside, farmers have launched their own irrigated agricultural projects.
Nongovernmental organizations have helped finance these small-scale development activities. Women generally do most of the household chores of cooking, cleaning, and child rearing. With the growing exodus of young men from the villages, rural women have become increasingly involved in managing village forestry resources and operating millet and rice mills. The government has established a rural development agency designed to organize village women and involve them more actively in the development process.
Women play a prominent role in village health committees and prenatal and postnatal programs. In urban areas, despite women's second-class status within Islam, change has proceeded rapidly in big cities, where women have entered the labor market as secretaries, typists, salesclerks, maids, and unskilled workers in textile mills and tuna-canning factories.
The Relative Status of Women and Men. The position of women in most ethnic groups is one of dependence: Despite constitutional protections, women face extensive societal discrimination, especially in rural areas, where Islamic and traditional customs, including polygyny and Islamic rules of inheritance, are strong and women generally are confined A house in Sokone, Senegal, has protected privacy with a painted metal fence.
About half of all women live in polygynous unions. It is estimated that only 20 percent of women are engaged in paid employment. Due to the fact that men are legally considered heads of the household, women pay higher taxes than men and employers pay child allowances to men and not to women.
In urban areas, several women's groups have formed to address violence against women, usually wife beating, which is a common problem. The police usually do not intervene in domestic disputes, and most people are reluctant to go outside the family for help. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage.
In rural areas, parents often arrange marriages for their children. A young man may want a young woman, but his father decides whether she is suitable.
A go-between often is appointed to investigate the woman's family background. If the father finds the family satisfactory, he sends the go-between to deliver kola nuts to the woman's parents. The parents accept the kola nuts if they approve of the young man. African men have great manners and social transformation. Family is located on the republic of librarians and is still jealously guarded. Dating may vary across the republic of senegal dating with older people.
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