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"The Winter Wrap-Up in Ponyville is traditionally done without magic, Miss Sparkle." Okay, time to screw with Tia and Lulu and whoever she's got wielding the Elements this time. .. out of sunlight via chlorophyll and a source of water, as well as carbon dioxide in the air. 14 (HTTYD crossover 1). Radiocarbon dating is one of the great tools of science that has allowed much younger just as the fossil carbon makes it appear much older. of logic designed to eliminate errors and isolate the only possible conclusions. Filming the episodes of My Little Pony is harder than it looks. Take a look at some of the bloopers and mistakes that the ponies make during.
If everything went as it had first time, Nightmare Moon would arrive in just a few minutes to start going on about how the night would last forever. Honestly, it was getting a little boring.
Twilight sometimes considered she'd gotten a little jaded. Well, what could the universe expect if it made her keep doing the same thing over and over? Anyway, this at least would be hilarious. A faint touch to the Element of Magic… a spell from an ancient spellbook You're nothing but a child. Is this all Celestia has to stop me? Everything went white, and when it faded she had the Element of Magic on her forehead, and a familiar dress on her back.
More importantly, though, she was once more Princess Twilight. A good old fashioned punch up would be just the thing. For one thing, she wasn't Celestia's student this time — though that wasn't all that unusual in and of itself. For another, she was viewed a lot like Pinkie Pie had been in the original loop. That would be because Pinkie Pie in this version of Equestria was the faithful student of King Discord, benevolent ruler of the surreal land of Equestria.
And, furthermore, there was evidence that the dreaded Infernal Blaze was returning. At least there were some benefits. For one thing, things made sense around her — it was like she normalized the area nearby.
I lay about even odds on either me being the Element of Laughter this loop, or the Element of Magic being one of the five necklaces…" "Fools! I shall destroy your pitiful ruler, and then restore my rightful Empire of the Sun! I am the goddess of the sun!
I…" Infernal Blaze broke off, sniffed, and started screaming. Infernal Blaze jumped bodily into the lake, which happened to be one of chocolate sauce. There was a splutch, a hiss, and a delicious smell. After a moment Celestia's head came out of the sauce. Your friends have abandoned you. What do you say to that?
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You're… not going to stop me? Do you take a guess as to what that is, or is one of your salient divine powers the ability to analyze that sort of thing? This is the realm of chaos! The bluejay flew into it, turned back into a book, and fluttered over to Twilight to let her keep writing. How is that working? Thanks for the info!
I'm sure you have lots of plans for redecorating. Now, where did the Crusaders go…" "Day eighteen… or thirty-seven, depending on if you trust the sunrises. Discord has apparently spent three entire days converting every single cloud in the country into an elaborate topiary sculpture.
On a related note, it now rains nectar.
I mean, there'd be no point turning the roads from flagstones into granite, it wouldn't be funny. Twilight held up another notebook. It was turned to a page with the words 'and then Discord turns it into high temperature, nearly molten granite'.
And I've been ticking off the ones you've done. Oh, and that's another one off the list…" Twilight said, calmly. She came back two seconds later with some Poison Joke in a careful telekinetic grip.
Same with timber wolves and zap apples, I was quite the gardener…" The draconequus summoned a hoe with a flash of light and prodded the ground, which collapsed away under him. Twilight next brought out a painting from a famous surrealist.
MLP Loops Chapter 1, a my little pony fanfic | FanFiction
Anyway, want to try smoking the Poison Joke? That should do with your nasty case of predictability. She'd crossed off the last square when Discord pulled the pipe out of the painting.
From the wrong end, of course. Twilight held up her notebook one more time at the last page, with a triumphant grin. I'm going to need them to help operate the Elements…" 11 Trixie laughed as she cast two powerful age-altering spells on Snips and Snails, luxuriating in the power the Alicorn Amulet gave her.
Now Trixie is the greater unicorn! I read about those, they give you a huge power boost. Are we allowed those? Of course Trixie is allowed the Amulet, it took her many months of effort to obtain! When it faded, Twilight checked her new wings over.
Fossil fuel emissions threaten to reduce radiocarbon dating reliability
Maybe I'm getting better at doing this alone. You're the one who brought a magical superweapon to this duel first, don't complain now it's not the one sided battle you hoped it was.
Are you going to chicken out, or give me a good workout? This would be fun. She'd gone to bed that night with everything normal, and the next morning… well, apart from anything else Big Mac asked her if everything was ready for the family reunion.
She hadn't known one was going on at all. To make things worse, there was no sign at all of her friends. More to the point, it was a completely different season than when she went to bed, and topping everything off was that Applebloom was quite visibly bored. She'd asked where her friends Sweetie Belle and Scootaloo were, and 'bloom had looked at her like she'd gone funny in the head. In fact, it was all so confusing she wondered if she'd tried bucking all the trees in the orchard again.
And then the whole Apple family had shown up, and she'd spent the morning scrambling to keep up with details she didn't know. Something somepony had said suggested this was years in the past, which couldn't be right… but which made sense, from what 'bloom was acting like.
Then there was a loud bang, and a cloud of smoke. What all is Trixie doing here? Then the cloud cleared, to reveal… The farm pony's jaw dropped. I have no clue why. What in Tartarus is goin' on? For some reason, I — and now you, apparently — keep going back to the dawn of the day we first met. I've been doing this for a hundred and thirty five loops, so I get kind of… stir crazy. And ah could swear you were a Princess last time we met…" "Sometimes. It confused her so much, it was hilarious.
Anyway, I think we should, well… learn what we can, keep ponies safe, try to work out why these loops are happening, and have fun. By the way, don't be surprised if things are… different. Just… take a moment to check your memory each time, okay? Now, what do we do about Nightmare Moon? She actually knows quite a lot about illusions.
It's just… how, exactly, will we grow crops? You interrupt me with farming? I'm sure you lost track of that a bit on the moon, but plants need the sun to supply them with energy — which they convert out of sunlight via chlorophyll and a source of water, as well as carbon dioxide in the air. That becomes glucose which is then converted into other sugars, like fructose, or just left as it is, and so that energy is stored in a form ponies can eat — so, without the sun, no food. After a moment, she shook her head to clear it and pointed her horn directly at Twilight.
I will not be denied my rightful overlordship by such ridiculous problems as plants! Be back in a tick! Outside, Nightmare Moon picked herself up from the wreckage of one whole side of the building. She could hear a voice talking. What was she talking about now?
Wait… she could swear that those words were… ominous. Sorry, miss Nightmare Moon, ma'am, but it is for your own good…" "This is marvellous! It matches my cutie mark perfectly! Six colours of harmony hit her almost as hard as the earth pony had. Oh, actually…" she conjured four pairs of mirrored sunglasses, and slipped them over their faces. Twilight promptly hit her with a Want-It-Need-It spell.
Better than when you showed us Spikezilla! I bet you could tell if somepony's telling the truth or not if you get a strong enough connection with the Element of Honesty.
This calls for science! This place is mainly populated by ponies. Is she the local Loop anchor? I think I've replaced her.
Where is she, buster? Sorry, you're not getting your friend — Twilight, right? I'm taking her place for all intents and purposes. Hiccup felt some strange, deep magic pulse for a moment.
I'll believe you… for now. Until AJ can give you a look over, anyway. Sorry, another time looping person? Oh, I'm Rainbow Dash — but you can call me awesome. As Nightmare Moon proclaimed her eternal reign, Hiccup looked to the five native Loopers. Or can she be defeated another way? As the girls gasped, he swelled and shifted form into the twenty foot lithe predator from Berk, then took wing. They're nearly invisible in the dark, and they've evolved as ambush predators against other flying entities at night.
The next shot was green. The postal magic can mix in with my fire… hey, Hiccup? July 22nd, A radiocarbon sample being prepared for analysis Credit: CSIRO Radiocarbon dating is one of the great tools of science that has allowed archeologists to shed new light on everything from the building of Stonehenge to the beginnings of international trade. However, a new study from the Imperial College London suggests that fossil fuel carbon emissions may be so diluting radioactive carbon isotopes that within decades it will difficult to differentiate between modern artifacts and those over a thousand years old.
It may conjure up a very odd mental picture, but every living thing on Earth has its own internal clock that's ready to start ticking the moment it dies.
And that's what the American physical chemist Willard Libby won the Nobel Prize for when he discovered radiocarbon dating in the late s. It's based on the very simple principle that radioactive isotopes decay at a steady, predictable rate. Radium, for example, has a half-life of about 1, years. That is, if you had a solid block of radium, half of it would decay into other elements in 1, years.
In another 1, years, half of that would decay, and so on until it was all gone. If you know how pure your block of radium originally was, it's relatively simple to calculate how old it is by measuring how much radium is left. This is a very useful tool if you have solid blocks of radium that need dating, but if you don't know how much radium was there in the first place, the job is a lot harder.
For living things, we do have a radioactive isotope that we can measure. It's called carbon and is created by cosmic ray neutrons striking nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere. When an organism dies, it ceases to absorb new carbon and the clock starts ticking.
What allows scientists to measure how much carbon was in an organism when it died is the assumption that the isotope is produced at a more or less steady rate that can be calibrated by comparing radiocarbon dates against more reliable tree ring dating. Since the ratio of carbon to other carbon isotopes is fixed, and no new carbon is absorbed after an organism dies, it's possible to estimate the time since the organism died going back tens or even hundreds of thousands of years by measuring the ratio of carbon against stable carbon isotopes in ancient organic compounds.
It's served archeology and other fields well, but now it's in a spot of bother. A new study by Heather D Graven from the Department of Physics and Grantham Institute at Imperial College London indicates that fossil fuel emissions are confusing things by drastically altering the ratio of carbon to other isotopes. Her study uses a simple carbon cycle model with a one-dimensional box diffusion model of the ocean, with the atmosphere and the biosphere represented as one-box carbon reservoirs.
According to this model, the carbon being pumped into the atmosphere by vehicles and industry is diluting the carbon by introducing large amounts of "fossil" carbon.
Though fossil fuel sources are largely derived from dead organisms, they are many millions of years old and all of the carbon they once contained has long decayed away, leaving only stable isotopes. As carbon compounds from these fuels are emitted into the atmosphere, they change the naturally fixed ratio of carbon to other isotopes, so the atmosphere appears much older. The result is that as modern organisms ingest this carbon and eventually die, they, too, seem much older than they actually are.
Graven says that the amount of carbon being pumped into the atmosphere is so great that bya newly made cotton t-shirt will have the same radiocarbon date as a robe worn by William the Conqueror in the 11th century.
She also says that at the present rate, the effect will be noticeable by The study indicates that if this occurs, it will not only have implications for archeology, but also for detecting fraudulent art works, detecting illegal ivory, and other important fields.
However, if carbon emissions could be drastically reduced, the effects could be reduced or even eliminated over time. One point to keep in mind is that the important thing about this study isn't that carbon emissions are affecting radiocarbon dating, but the scale at which they are doing so according to Graven's modeling. In fact, as she points out, artificial carbon's effect has always been well known since the early days of the technique.
It's called the Industrial or Suess effect, named after Hans Suess, who first studied it.