School Library Journal
Date & Time. August Expo Latino Festival will be held on August 17, 18 & .. We have vendor booths available to anyone with a business or service. It can be tough to remember the title of a book you read a long time a Book When You've Forgotten Its Title by Gwen Glazer, Librarian, Readers Services November 22, . Submitted by Guest (not verified) on December 7, - am Perhaps the woman was of Hispanic or Native American ancestry and I think. Hispanic Heritage Month is September October Meet the author of Pura Belpré Honor book, The Only Road, about two Guatemalan.
Shuttle and private tour guide to take the group to Tikal National Park. Guided day tour with lunch in park at the end of tour. Shuttle to boat to transfer group to Bolontiku Hotel on private island in jungle, and Hotel Isla de Flores on the island of Flores, Guatemala. Wake up in Tikal, have breakfast, and enjoy a day at Lake Peten Itza or hotel pool. Shuttle pick up around 4: Antigua Tour shuttles will take the group back to Antigua for dinner and other evening group activities.
Guests will have the opportunity to enjoy the day before the conference begins in the evening. After the CLEs, group closing luncheon at the hotel courtyard.
Group day trip to Lake Atitlan. Antigua tours will drive us to and from Lake Atitlan, where we will have breakfast at the lake. Our last night in town will include evening group activities.
Antigua shuttles back to Guatemala for flights home. The deadline to submit your hotel reservation is January 15, After the cut-off date of January 15,reservations are accepted on a space and rate availability basis and cannot be guaranteed at the conference rates. Immigration Law on Immigration from Latin America If economic, political, and social factors provoked and perpetuated immigration from our southern neighbors, the history of immigration law may be most responsible for the diversity of Latino immigration in terms of legal status, class selectivity, and destination.
With the exception of Puerto Rico, migratory flows from Latin American countries to the United States have been shaped, to varying degrees, by the opportunities, limitations, and exceptions that different laws and regulations concerning migration have offered since the turn of the 20th century. Among the national-level immigration laws that have been ratified in the United States, three deserve special attention because of their direct effects upon migration from Latin America: In addition, there has been special legislation related to the specific cases of Cubans and Central Americans.
The Immigration Act ofalso known as the Hart-Celler Act, established an annual limitation ofvisas from all Eastern Hemisphere countries with no more than 20, per country.
The civil rights revolution in the s sought to mitigate discrimination based on race and ethnicity, and thus the law sought to revoke the previous immigration policy, which favored European immigration and severely impeded Asian immigration. By replacing the old quotas with numerical country ceilings that were uniform across all Eastern Hemisphere countries, the change effectively eliminated the restrictions on immigration from Asia Jasso and Rosenzweig, It also stressed family reunification as grounds for admission, along with a very inclusive definition of family relationships.
Programs for school-aged kids
Thus the act's legacy is to have opened the door to large-scale immigration from the Eastern Hemisphere. This law also ended the Bracero Program and created a general visa policy for the Western Hemisphere with no numerical limits.
Ina limit ofvisas for the Western Hemisphere was set, although this amendment does not determine fixed, per-nation quotas. For 10 years, Mexicans secured roughly half of all the Western Hemisphere visas under the quota.
However, with a amendment, a quota of 20, visas per country was established and continues to the present Jasso and Rosenzweig, ; Reimers,p.
Consequently, this law greatly reduces the number of legally authorized immigrants who can come from Mexico and effectively increases the number of immigrants that can come from the rest of Latin America. Given historically high levels of legal Mexican immigration for the past century or more, a long common border with the United States and persistently great socioeconomic inequality between the two countries, the tightening of immigration restrictions for Mexico has generated greater levels of undocumented immigration.
This system of hemispheric limits soon was in crisis because of the almostCuban refugees who were allowed to enter the country between anda fact that came to modify the established ceiling for the Western Hemisphere. A case involving the exceptional number of visas given to Cubans was taken to court. The judge in that case, known as Silva versus Levi, ruled that the rights ofpeople, primarily Mexicans, had been violated.
As a result, visas that came to be known as Silva Cards Cartas Silva were issued to the victors in the lawsuit Reimers, and the immigration law was eventually reformed in to separate refugees from the per-country quota system. In the next stage, the IRCA greatly affected the legal status of some 2.
The 27 Best Customer Service Books
This law outlined two amnesty programs, which included a general program named the Legally Authorized Worker LAW program for undocumented immigrants who had resided five years or more in the United States, and the Special Agricultural Workers SAW program for those who had worked in agriculture during the past six months. To some degree, Central Americans had a more difficult time qualifying for these programs, since many of these new immigrants did not meet the residency requirements Donato, Durand, and Massey, ; Durand, ; Massey et al.
The major impact of this law was to improve the legal status of Latino immigrants in general and Mexicans in particularby regularizing the situation of most existing undocumented migrants. Legalization allowed Latinos to become more geographically dispersed throughout U.
Undocumented workers tend not to move very far from their workplaces, because when traveling they become conspicuous and risk greater exposure to being detained by the Immigration and Naturalization Service INS.
However, once they were able to secure legal papers through IRCA, more than 3 million individuals were able to travel with greater ease to look for work or new opportunities in other areas.
The economic crisis in California that resulted from the end of the Cold War and the decline of the local aerospace industry led to further immigration away from that state. At the same time, many immigrants who had taken advantage of the IRCA programs found better wages and opportunities in other states.
The s economic recovery in the rest of the United States increased the demand for workers Donato et al. The IIRAIRA of constituted a serious blow to the community of Latin American origin because it restricted a wide range of support programs and services to which the migrant population had previously had access, regardless of legal status.Black Women & Hispanic / Latino Men
Undocumented workers consequently suffered, substantial hurdles were placed to prevent the entrance of refugees, and resident immigrants with work permits who were not citizens were penalized. In many ways, this federal law contained many of the same elements as California's Propositionwhich voters in that state passed inalthough it avoided California's ban on K—12 education and emergency services for the undocumented, which had been ruled unconstitutional by the U.
Supreme Court Hood and Morris, ; Weintraub, Nevertheless, as so often happens, laws bring unexpected consequences. In this case, the new restrictions on the immigrant community actually fostered the empowerment of that very group, as the number of applications for naturalization soon rose substantially.
The year was a landmark in this regard, as the number of Mexican migrants who applied for naturalization tripled compared with the year before—an interesting development given this particular group's traditional reluctance to change its nationality, although it was expected from the amnesty program under IRCA. Figure shows that the number of naturalizations for immigrants from Latin America increased from 65, in toin Immigration and Naturalization Service Three factors were particularly responsible for the change in the number of naturalizations: Of course, naturalization data are affected by bureaucratic rhythms, particularly the time required to process applications, but the large increase between the first and second half of the s is indisputable.
As in much of the data on Hispanics, the Mexican case drives these results. There were 22, naturalizations from that country in, inand an average ofin subsequent years. In synthesis, there were no restrictions on immigration for Latin Americans prior to Hemispheric restrictions began in and by country in the hemisphere in Regardless of the quota system, this legislation did not impede the growth of the Latino population through immigration, although it clearly fueled increased diversification of national origins.
Also, the IRCA legislation had transformed earlier undocumented Hispanics into permanent immigrants and encouraged greater geographical mobility within the country Massey et al.
The law stirred the Latino community to action, as many individuals decided to apply for naturalization in order to avoid losing a number of rights they had enjoyed up to that time.
These changes consequently have implications for the nature of Latino political participation in the United States, as Chapter 11 discusses.
These different migration laws not only affected the Latino immigrant population directly, but also brought them into direct contact with governmental institutions and the U.
Through personal procedures and collective social struggles—especially of a legal nature—Latinos began to interact with a variety of U. In short, they became more politically integrated as they learned how to operate in North American society. This dynamic of institutional interaction can be better appreciated through the analysis of some specific cases Georges, ; Hamilton and Stoltz Chinchilla, ; Pessar, For example, the only country to have ever experienced a guest-worker program on a large scale is Mexico.
Without question, migration from Mexico has been subject to more exceptions to U. From tothe Bracero Program allowed about 5 million Mexican agricultural workers to enter the United States to work legally on a seasonal basis Calavita, Inthese former guest-workers braceros were offered the opportunity to legalize their migratory status if their employers or relatives were willing to support their applications, as there were no fixed limits or country quotas for Western Hemisphere nations.
It was not until that Mexico had to adapt to the quota system that the United States established at the world level 20, visas. This controlled migratory flow primarily involved people who tended to settle in particular cities, especially Los Angeles Ortiz, Mexicans used the family reunification measures to bring their relatives into the country.
According to Jasso and Rozenweigin Later still, inMexican immigrants were also the main beneficiaries of the IRCA reforms, through which perhaps 2. Finally, in the s, almost 80, H2A and H2B visas were issued to Mexicans to enter the country legally as temporary agricultural and service workers, despite the fact that those particular visas had traditionally been granted to migrant workers from the Caribbean Portes and Rumbaut, ; Smith-Nonini, see Box The H2A temporary agricultural visa is a nonimmigrant visa that allows foreign nationals to enter the United States to perform agricultural labor or services of a temporary or seasonal nature.
Limits are not fixed and vary annually. This is the easiest and most cost-effective way to secure an immigration visa, because persons chosen under this system have the right to migrate with their families to the United States. In some cases, they are given prepaid airfare. Cuba became a special case beginning inboth with respect to the entry of refugees and to the systems of quotas, lotteries, deportations, and regularization.
What is most notable in the Cuban case is the series of advances and retreats that have characterized the migratory policies of the U. The Cuban government allowed several thousand emigrants to leave the island freely from the harbor at Camarioca inand in somemore were permitted to leave the country from the port of Mariel and were eventually received as refugees by the United States Portes and Stepick, Beginning in the Johnson administration, air travel from Cuba was allowed, making it possible formore Cubans to enter the country Reimers,p.
Between andalmost half a million Cubansbecame permanent residents Jasso and Rosenzweig, In the Cuban case, there has even been legislation the Law of Adjustment related to the so-called raft people, who are granted refuge only if they succeed in reaching American soil, a right that is denied to those who are captured or rescued while still at sea.
Dominicans also received preferential treatment after the fall of Trujillo, who governed as president from to and exercised an almost exclusively personal authority over the issuing of passports Grasmuck and Pessar, During the U.
Those who benefited most were young men who had supported the opposition movement Georges, Later, the economic reforms instituted by the Balaguer regime spurred an intense flow of migrants to the United States. Many of these Dominican migrants entered the country with legitimate tourist visas and then simply stayed on indefinitely, while others opted for an indirect emigration route that took them first to Puerto Rico, where they crossed the dangerous Strait of La Mona Duany, During their stay in Puerto Rico, many Dominicans worked in agriculture or the informal economy, although others considered their time on the island as simply a stopover on their journey to the United States Duany, Hernandez Angueira, and Rey, Central American countries, such as Nicaragua and, to a lesser extent, El Salvador and Guatemala, have also benefited from special regularization programs.
In the s, President Reagan's support for the contras antisandinistas was manifested, among many other ways, by a very liberal policy for issuing tourist visas to Nicaraguans, many of whom later became illegal immigrants but were finally granted refugee status. This particular act was also utilized by some Salvadoran, Guatemalan, and Cuban migrants Menjivar, Nonetheless, there was a clear reluctance to recognize most Salvadorans and Guatemalans as refugees even if they were fleeing civil wars, so they were classified as economic immigrants.
Many of them were deported in the s, while a few received asylum and others launched lawsuits with the support of a variety of nongovernmental and religious organizations Hamilton and Stoltz Chinchilla, Finally, ina form of temporary protection was granted temporary protected status, or TPS 1which gave those migrants permission to work, although it did not grant them permanent residence status, as had been the case with the Nicaraguans. This measure was renewed several times untilwhen the courts established a legal status designed to protect all migrants who found themselves in similar situations.
In this way, many Salvadorans and Guatemalans succeeded in regularizing their migratory status Menjivar, Finally, migrants from South American countries depend mostly on the established quota system that allows them to enter the United States as tourists, although once there, they often take advantage of the family reunification provisions.
Hispanic Bar Association of New Jersey - Events
Few South Americans have petitioned for refugee status, and there have been no cases of special legislation or programs related to these nations. Nonetheless, the number of migrants that decide to remain in the United States after their visas expire is increasing, adding to the ranks of undocumented migrants. Undocumented Immigration In effect, the limits on immigration from Latin America, which began inalong with the growing demand for low-wage labor have led to the growth of an undocumented population.
The Latino population in the United States today includes a high proportion of undocumented migrants, a situation that made regularization programs so significant in the past. In practice, there are now two main modalities of undocumented migration. The first is the preferred method of Mexican and Central American migrants, who enter the United States surreptitiously by crossing its southern border. The second is that used by individuals who first obtain a tourist visa to enter the country and then stay beyond the document's expiration date.
Estimates for indicate that there are 9. Careful demographic studies on the size of the undocumented population are relatively recent. At first, the INS estimated that there were between 8 and 12 millon undocumented in the s but with no empirical evidence.