BBC - Religions - Zoroastrian: Under Persian rule
Dec 20, Adherents. , Place Founded. Ancient Persia. Date Founded. c. 6th century BCE. Founder(s). Zoroaster. Beliefs. one God, Ahura Mazda. Oct 2, A single Zoroastrian church was created under the control of Persia; A single A thirteenth month was added every six years to keep the dates in line with The traditional tolerance towards other religions was abandoned. Explain Zoroastrianism and its impact on Persian culture With possible roots dating back to the second millennium BCE, Zoroastrianism enters recorded.
Followers of Ilm-e-Kshnoom in India believe in reincarnation and practice vegetarianism, two principles unknown to Orthodox Zoroastrianism,  although Zoroaster was himself a vegetarian. In Zoroastrian cosmogonywater and fire are respectively the second and last primordial elements to have been created, and scripture considers fire to have its origin in the waters. Both water and fire are considered life-sustaining, and both water and fire are represented within the precinct of a fire temple.
Zoroastrians usually pray in the presence of some form of fire which can be considered evident in any source of lightand the culminating rite of the principle act of worship constitutes a "strengthening of the waters". Fire is considered a medium through which spiritual insight and wisdom is gained, and water is considered the source of that wisdom. A corpse is considered a host for decay, i.
Consequently, scripture enjoins the safe disposal of the dead in a manner such that a corpse does not pollute the good creation. These injunctions are the doctrinal basis of the fast-fading traditional practice of ritual exposure, most commonly identified with the so-called Towers of Silence for which there is no standard technical term in either scripture or tradition.
Ritual exposure is only practiced by Zoroastrian communities of the Indian subcontinentin locations where it is not illegal and diclofenac poisoning has not led to the virtual extinction of scavenger birds.
Other Zoroastrian communities either cremate their dead, or bury them in graves that are cased with lime mortar. While the Parsees in India have traditionally been opposed to proselytizingand even considered it a crime for which the culprit may face expulsion,  Iranian Zoroastrians have never been opposed to conversion, and the practice has been endorsed by the Council of Mobeds of Tehran. While the Iranian authorities do not permit proselytizing within Iran, Iranian Zoroastrians in exile have actively encouraged missionary activities, with The Zarathushtrian Assembly in Los Angeles and the International Zoroastrian Centre in Paris as two prominent centres.
As in many other faiths, Zoroastrians are encouraged to marry others of the same faith, but this is not a requirement. The roots of Zoroastrianism are thought to have emerged from a common prehistoric Indo-Iranian religious system dating back to the early 2nd millennium BCE.
Zoroastrianism enters recorded history in the mid-5th century BCE.
Zoroastrianism | Definition, Beliefs, Founder, & Facts | thebluetones.info
Herodotus ' The Histories completed c. According to Herodotus i. The Zoroastrian Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent. Following the unification of the Median and Persian empires in BCE, Cyrus the Great and, later, his son Cambyses II curtailed the powers of the Magi after they had attempted to sow dissent following their loss of influence.
In BCE, the Magi revolted and set up a rival claimant to the throne. The usurper, pretending to be Cyrus' younger son Smerdistook power shortly thereafter.
Darius I and later Achaemenid emperors acknowledged their devotion to Ahura Mazda in inscriptions, as attested to several times in the Behistun inscription, and appear to have continued the model of coexistence with other religions. Whether Darius was a follower of Zoroaster has not been conclusively established, since devotion to Ahura Mazda was at the time not necessarily an indication of an adherence to Zoroaster's teaching.
A number of the Zoroastrian texts that today are part of the greater compendium of the Avesta have been attributed to that period. This calendar attributed to the Achaemenid period is still in use today.
Additionally, the divinities, or yazatasare present-day Zoroastrian angels Dhalla, According to later Zoroastrian legend Denkard and the Book of Arda Virafmany sacred texts were lost when Alexander the Great 's troops invaded Persepolis and subsequently destroyed the royal library there. According to one archaeological examination, the ruins of the palace of Xerxes bear traces of having been burned Stolze, Whether a vast collection of semi- religious texts "written on parchment in gold ink", as suggested by the Denkard, actually existed remains a matter of speculation, but is unlikely.
Given that many of the Denkards statements-as-fact have since been refuted by scholars, the tale of the library is widely accepted to be fictional Kellens, Alexander's conquests largely displaced Zoroastrianism with Hellenistic beliefs though the religion continued to be practiced many centuries following the demise of the Achaemenids in mainland Persia and the core regions of the former Achaemenid Empire, most notably AnatoliaMesopotamiaand the Caucasus.
In the Cappadocian kingdomwhose territory was formerly an Achaemenid possession, Persian colonists, cut off from their co-religionists in Iran proper, continued to practice the faith [Zoroastrianism] of their forefathers; and there Straboobserving in the first century B. Zoroastrianism was the official religion of Persia, its birthplace, for more than a millennium, but today the community is a fraction of its former size, and that's raising serious concerns about the future of the faith.
Ms Havewala calls herself "a housewife who's involved in some social causes". Supplied "About seven years ago, it struck me very badly [that] a lot of our youngsters are getting married outside the community," Ms Havewala explains. It started as an idea for Indian Parsis, but word quickly spread and soon Zoroastrians living everywhere, from Austin to Auckland and Iran to Oman, began contacting Ms Havewala for her coveted list.
Under Persian rule
The community is so small it makes up 0. Auzita Pourshasb right expected to marry a Zoroastrian, but instead found love with a Christian, Nathan Secomb. Siobhan Hegarty Ms Pourshasb eventually met and fell in love with a Christian man. Traces of it are found in Mazdean orthodoxy, some features of which cannot otherwise be explained. In Mazdean orthodoxy, when Ormazd created the material world, he first produced from Infinite Light a form of fire, out of which all things were to be born.
The Mazdean quaternity is reflected in the calendar at Nisa in 90 bce. The Zurvanite speculation that preceded it probably dates back to the first centuries of the Arsacid period and thus was born in the wake of Hellenism and in connection with the spread of astrology. Cosmology In order to vanquish Ahriman, Ormazd created the world as a battlefield. He knew that this fight would be limited in time—it would last 9, years—and he offered Ahriman a pact to that effect. He was then stirred up by the prostitute Primal Woman and went back to the attack, this time in the material universe.
He killed the Primal Bull, whose marrow gave birth to the plants and whose semen was collected and purified in the moon, whence it would produce the useful animals.
A part of it would produce the rhubarb from which the first human couple would be born. Ormazd and Ahriman then fight on equal terms until Ormazd, at the end of the last 3, years, finally will triumph.
Humanity The idea of a human being as a microcosm, already illustrated in the cosmogony, is further developed in the Bundahishn. But one does not die altogether.
There are five immortal parts of a human being: This originally aristocratic notion seems to have been vulgarized in the same way as, in Greece, any dead person came to be considered a hero, or, in Egypt, an Osiris. Indian and Iranian beliefs in the afterlife have many features in common, probably dating back to the Indo-Iranian period: Either before this encounter or after, according to the various texts, the soul must cross a bridge. This, with the young girl and the gods, is attested in India in the Yajurveda and the Upanishads.Iran: The silent relovolution of Zoroastrians - in French, persian
It leads the good souls to paradise, but the bad ones fall into hell. The soul has also to undergo a judgment; it appears before Mithra and his two companions, Sraosha and Rashnu. In the Veda it is said only that the sojourn of the good deed is beyond the path of the sun. Hell also has, symmetrically, four levels. For the souls whose good actions exactly balance their evil ones, there is an intermediate place.
Eschatology Zarathustra used to invoke saviours who, like the dawns of new days, would come to the world. He hoped himself to be one of them. After his death, the belief in coming saviours developed. Zarathustra was expected to return, if not personally, at least in the form of his three sons who would be born, at intervals of a thousand years, from his semen.
The last of these saviours, Astvat-ereta, or justice incarnate, was also simply called the Saviour Saoshyans. Only in the Pahlavi books is this theme systematically developed.
It is dominated by the idea of a final return to the initial state of things. The first human couple had at first fed on water, then on plants, on milk, and at last on meat. The people in the last millennia will, at the advent of the three successive saviours, abstain in the reverse order from meat, milk, and plants to keep finally only water. The primeval combatants also have their counterparts at the end of time.
The dragon that was killed in order to liberate the imprisoned waters will appear again at the resurrection to be killed by another hero. In the last great struggle, the host of good and the host of evil will vie with each other, and each soldier of Ormazd will defeat and kill his own special adversary. This will restore the state of peace that had prevailed initially. The wicked will then submit to an ordeal of molten metal and fire. Fire and Airyaman will cause the metals of the mountains to melt and to flow down as a river of fire.
The whole of resuscitated humankind must traverse it; it will burn only the wicked, whereas to the just it will be as sweet as warm milk.