U.S. Constitution - Amendment 21 - The U.S. Constitution Online - thebluetones.info
Constitutional Amendments make up what is known as The Bill of Rights. Passed by Congress December 18, Repealed by amendment as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of. proposed on December 18, #, State, Date, *. 1, Mississippi, Jan 8, 21, West Virginia, Jan 9, 22, California, Jan 13, The 21st Amendment repealed the 18th Amendment as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by.
In particular, current federal and state laws that prohibit drug sale and use should be maintained: There is a price to be paid for such restrictions, of course.
But for drugs such as heroin and cocaine, which are dangerous but currently largely unpopular, that price is small relative to the benefits. I have long defended a broader reading of what we should have learned from the Twenty-First Amendment, but have not. Neither the prohibition of alcohol nor of many other drugs could be thus justified, and indeed worsened harms sometimes incident to drug use that could better be mitigated by forms of regulation, including the availability of non-punitive medical and therapeutic services.
The Prohibition Amendment for this reason violated human rights, and should further be condemned because its political motives were, on examination, racist, condemning the ways of life not only of people of color but of racialized recent immigrants. Such unjust criminalization—by making sale and manufacture of alcohol illegal—also made now illegal such businesses lucrative, including willingness to use forms of violence to support such businesses. The violent criminality associated with alcohol use was, in fact, largely the product of its unjust criminalization its criminogenesis.
Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and, apparently, Donald Trump.
This, in turn, has played a prominent role in racialized mass incarceration in the United States that has now become a national and international scandal to many on both the left and right.
What was true of the Prohibition Amendment was true as well of the shabby political motives and racial and social prejudices of the largely Republican sponsored War on Drugs, as Nixon advisor John Ehrlichman acknowledged. The violent criminality allegedly associated with drug use remains largely the product of its unjust criminalization, including the criminality that flourishes abroad in the nations that feed our drug habit.
And drug prohibition and enforcement are highly racialized, as if the harms of drug use only trigger intervention when they are the drug habits of lower-class people of color. What we should have learned from the Prohibition Amendment, we have not learned—caught in a repetition compulsion motored by some of our worst, most ignoble political impulses. It is time for a change.
U.S. Constitution - Amendment 18 - The U.S. Constitution Online - thebluetones.info
Richards, Sex, Drugs, Death, and the Law: Rowman and Littlefield, Husak, Drugs and Rights Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Douglas Husak, Legalize This! The case for decriminalizing drugs London: Oxford University Press, Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
Ratified June 15, A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th amendment. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice.
But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. Ratified December 6, A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Ratified July 9, Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof.
But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. Ratified February 3, The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude-- Section 2.
List of amendments to the United States Constitution
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
Ratified April 8, Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th amendment. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. Ratified January 16, Repealed by amendment After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
18th and 21st Amendments
Ratified August 18, The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Ratified January 23, Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3.
The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.